81 Agnus dei definition at Dictionary.com, a free online dictionary with pronunciation, synonyms and translation. Google Scholar. The agnus dei could also be a mark of those who had been in contact with missionary priests. 77 James Kelly, ‘Creating an English Catholic Identity: Relics, Martyrs, and English Women Religious in Counter-Reformation Europe’, in Kelly and Royal, Early Modern English Catholicism, 41-59. 34 Google Scholar. 63 79. The latest alteration of official worship brought with it the fresh destruction of altars, relics, vestments, plate, and other precious materials that had been replaced during Mary’s reign.Footnote Scott, Jade, ‘Percy, Anne, countess of Northumberland (1536–1591)’, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2015), http://www.oxforddnb.com/view/article/107539 (accessed 6 October 2017)Google Scholar. 25 Figure 2 Anne Percy escaped to the Low Countries and spent the rest of her life in exile. In these circumstances, the motivations of English Catholics who chose to keep and circulate these items deserve fresh consideration. While researching Mozart ... to the juxtaposition of old and new styles apparent in Mozart’s late work and much of the liturgical music of the period. Details of the earl of Arundel’s arrest in 1585 illustrate the agnus dei’s potential political connections: at the time the earl was wearing an agnus dei, with a letter from the pope that declared him duke of Norfolk enclosed in its case.Footnote "metrics": true, Rymer, Thomas, ed., Foedera, Conventiones, Literae, et Cuiuscunque Acta Publica Inter Reges Angliae, 17 vols (London: A. Churchill, 1709), 9 Lit. See Kilroy, Edmund Campion, 307-8. Eleanor Brome (née Windsor) was married to Sir Christopher Brome, from the prominent recusant family based at Holton Hall in Oxfordshire. Google Scholar; 3 The language of the bull issued by Pius V does not specify that the queen’s subjects could continue to obey her in civil matters. Google Scholar. McClain, Lisa, Lest We Be Damned: Practical Innovation and Lived Experience Among Catholics in Protestant England, 1559-1642 (New York: Routledge, 2004)Google Scholar. © The Trustees of the British Museum. Dillon, Anne, The Construction of Martyrdom in the English Catholic Community (Aldershot: Ashgate, 2002), 1-17 83 The seventh century Pope Sergius I brought the Agnus Dei into a more prominent location within the Catholic Mass liturgy, as a chant sung while the celebrant physically breaks the Communion bread. See McCoog, The Society of Jesus in Ireland, Scotland, and England, 1541-1588 and The Society of Jesus in Ireland, Scotland, and England, 1589-1597. Anne Percy, the countess of Northumberland, and her husband Thomas Percy fled to Scotland in 1569 after helping to lead the Northern Rebellion. It assesses the uses of these sacramentals in Catholic missions to England, their reception amongst Catholics, and the political significance of the agnus dei in light of the papal excommunication of Elizabeth I in 1570. 3 100 Musacchio, ‘Lambs, Coral, Teeth’, 144-8. Francis Tucker wrote to Lord Burghley in 1583 to warn him that the Irish bishop of Ross had brought pardons and agni dei back to Ireland after his visit to Gregory XIII in April. 37 6 Meredith had already distributed several of these items in the city and in Lancashire, where he had previously ministered.Footnote They could be worn as pendants or preserved as devotional objects. Campion tried to persuade Martin to join the Society of Jesus when he arrived in Rome for the establishment of the new English College there in 1576, but he returned to France at William Allen’s request, possibly to begin work on the translation of the New Testament. Alberts, Tara, Conflict and Conversion: Catholicism in Southeast Asia, 1500-1700 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar, chapter 7. According to the report this illness, which Sander believed to be sent by God, killed three hundred people, many of them puritans.Footnote He returned to Scotland briefly in 1600, when the incident above took place. "comments": true, Brown, Nancy Pollard, ‘Paperchase: The Dissemination of Catholic Texts in Elizabethan England’, in English Manuscript Studies, 1 (1989): 120-143 Howard Louthan’s work on the re-Catholicisation of Bohemia after the Thirty Years’ War illustrates how ecclesiastical authorities and missionaries employed a range of measures to encourage people to return to the faith, including public rituals, works of art, and the encouragement of the cult of saints through the translation of relics.Footnote By permission of the Governors of Stonyhurst College, Lancashire. Henry Scrope served as treasurer for Henry V, but was executed for treason in 1415 because of connections with a plot to overthrow the king. Their effectiveness in interactions between Catholics and Protestants was of particular interest to missionaries reporting back to their superiors. A historical background and a study of the form and the function of Agnus Dei tropes as reflected in the manuscripts.\/span>\" ; \u00A0\u00A0\u00A0\n schema:description\/a> \" Edition des tropes de l\'Agnus Dei -- Aper\u00E7u des manuscrits -- Etude analytique. Footnote 17 Malo, Robyn, ‘Intimate Devotion: Recusant Martyrs and the Making of Relics in Post-Reformation England’, Journal of Medieval and Early Modern Studies 44, no. 70 Walsham, Alexandra, Providence in Early Modern England (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011), 234-236 The agni dei that Jesuit and seminary priests distributed amongst English Catholics did not always remain with their original recipients. Figure 5.1 Agnus Dei enclosed in a reliquary, 17th century, 7.5 cm x 5 cm. © The Trustees of the British Museum. 86 87 Houliston, Victor, Catholic Resistance in Elizabethan England: Robert Persons’s Jesuit Polemic, 1580-1610 (Aldershot: Ashgate, 2007)Google Scholar, and James Kelly, ed., ‘The English Jesuit Mission’, special issue of the Journal of Jesuit Studies (Hereafter, JJS) 1, 4 (2014): 511-636. The bishop of London arrested a priest named Jonas Meredith in March 1577 after finding him with ‘divers Agnus dei’ and beads. Lux-Sterritt, ‘“Virgo Becomes Virago”: Women in the Accounts of Seventeenth-Century English Catholic Missionaries’, Recusant History 30 (2011): 537-553 Google Scholar. CrossRefGoogle Scholar; Kelly, ‘Relics, Martyrs, and English Women Religious’, 41-59; see also Walsham, ‘Beads, Books, and Bare-Ruined Choirs’, 103-22. The ceremony was conducted in the first year of a pope’s election and once every seven years thereafter during his pontificate. Foley, Henry, Records of the English Province of the Society of Jesus, 7 vols (London: Burns and Oates, 1875), 7.2 42 The acknowledgment of papal supremacy implicit in the possession of an agnus dei was one of the principal reasons it was outlawed as a treasonous object. Edmund Campion argued that this association was legally unsound during his trial in 1581, asserting that the reconciliation facilitated by priests was ‘only due to god’, and not to the pope. 55 17 At his trial Mayne was accused of giving an agnus dei to his patron, Francis Tregian, and another to a group of eleven people in 1576.Footnote Unlike the sacraments, which the institutional church typically administered and controlled, the laity could use sacramental objects as they saw fit.Footnote "peerReview": true, On relics see for instance The agnus dei appears to have attracted comparable interest in Ireland, particularly with the rekindling of the Desmond Rebellion in the late 1570s. It may be possible to discern whether these individuals would have been receptive to papal calls for resistance to the queen, and the ways in which English Catholics interpreted these demands for resistance. Dillon, Anne, ‘“To Seek Out Comforts and Companions of His Own Kind and Condition”: The Benedictine Rosary Confraternity and the Chapel of Cardigan House, London’, in Lowell Gallagher, ed., Redrawing the Map of Early Modern English Catholicism (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 2012), 272-308 Alexandra Walsham has examined how polemical attacks on Catholic devotional objects dismissed them as ‘trash’ and ‘trumpery’ in post-Reformation England, and suggested that this language has overshadowed the study of the material culture of Catholicism in early modern Britain.Footnote See Molly Murray, ‘“Now I ame a Catholique”: William Alabaster and the Early Modern Catholic Conversion Narrative’, in Corthell et al., Catholic Culture, 189-215, for similar stories of reconciliation and conversion; see also The agnus dei was believed to possess many protective powers, including defence from storms, pestilence, fires, and floods, as well as the dangers of childbirth.Footnote 86 Mary Queen of Scots also seems to have been the recipient of quite a few agni dei in the 1580s. BL Lansdowne MS 50/76 f. 164. Walsham, Alexandra, ‘Translating Trent? While the agnus dei lost some of its more dangerous associations after the death of Elizabeth I, it remained important as a symbol of confessional distinction and as an indicator of the success of the missions to England throughout the seventeenth century. How to say agnus dei in English? It will examine how the possession of an agnus dei acted not only as a tool of personal faith, but also as a symbol of defiance against the Elizabethan regime and an acknowledgement of the supremacy of papal authority. 15 Google Scholar. See VI. 16 Marshall, Peter, Reformation England, 1480-1642 (London: Bloomsbury, 2012), 193 Another ‘heretical’ woman who found herself haunted by spirits in 1633 repaired to a local Catholic noblewoman for help, and upon receiving an agnus dei to wear was immediately cured of her visions.Footnote 69 After 1571 Catholic sacred objects were outlawed in England, and the possession of such objects could be prosecuted under the statute of praemunire. Because the wax medallions were fragile, it was also common to break an agnus dei into smaller pieces to be shared amongst the faithful, and carried in cases for protection.Footnote McCoog, Thomas, ‘Martin, Gregory (1542?–1582)’, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004), http://www.oxforddnb.com/view/article/18183 (accessed 1 Oct 2017)Google Scholar. Duffy, The Stripping of the Altars: Traditional Religion in England 1400-1580 (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2005), 281-282 Constance Despenser received an agnus dei encased in gold from her husband upon his death in 1400.Footnote Here again the links between the agnus dei and the missionary priests may be observed, though it is unclear whether the smuggler obtained his agni dei independently or as a gesture of thanks from the priests he smuggled into England. Despite this prohibition sacred objects including rosaries, blessed beads, and the agnus dei (wax pendants blessed by the pope) remained a critical part of Catholic devotion. The pope published the excommunication in response to the Northern Rebellion of 1569, which had been led by the earls of Northumberland and Westmoreland. Similarly, Liz Tingle has observed the popularity of portable, indulgenced objects such as medals, beads, and rosaries in Counter-Reformation France, especially those objects blessed by the pope.Footnote While the agnus dei functioned as a devotional and protective aid, it was not essential to the practice of Roman Catholicism in the way that the Mass and the sacraments were.Footnote 64 The agnus dei was therefore a precious devotional object in pre-Reformation England, shared amongst family members and neighbours to ward off the many dangers posed by everyday life in this period. 58 The potential for links between the possession of an agnus dei and a commitment to resisting Elizabeth and her government are also apparent in Ireland during this period. CrossRefGoogle Scholar. Dillon, ‘The Benedictine Rosary Confraternity’, 272-308. From the government’s perspective, their actions constituted a symbolic display of resistance to the queen that pointed to the potential of all English Catholics to commit treason and attempt to overthrow her. 30 83 As precious a spiritual object as the agnus dei may have been, it could be equally as dangerous because of what it implied about its owner’s beliefs concerning the queen’s legitimacy as a ruler. See A.J. In some cases agni dei were used in bold displays of resistance. A man named Hilary Dakins was identified as a Catholic after he was seen, on several occasions, wearing an agnus dei about his neck. 22 26 London, British Library (Hereafter, BL), Lansdowne MS 25/30 f. 63. In England few agni dei have survived from before the eighteenth century, partly due to the fragility of the materials with which they were made, and partly because of the legal restrictions placed upon them in the late sixteenth century. The Stuart rulers had less hostile relationships with the papacy, and none of them were ever threatened with excommunication as Elizabeth had been. In 1571 the English parliament declared that the bringing of any tokens ‘by the name of Agnus Dei’ into the realm, ‘or any crosses, pictures, beads or suchlike … things from the bishop or see of Rome, or from any persons or persons authorised or claiming authority by or from the said bishop or see of Rome to consecrate or hallow the same’, would henceforth incur the penalties of the statute of praemunire, including imprisonment and the loss of one’s property. The agnus dei was not the only sacred object targeted by the Elizabethan authorities: blessed rosaries, beads, and crucifixes also came under attack. Crosignani, Ginevra, McCoog, Thomas, and Questier, Michael, eds., Recusancy and Conformity in Early Modern England: Manuscript and Printed Sources in Translation (Toronto: Pontifical Institute of Medieval Studies, 2010), 86-89 No need to register, buy now! 80 lamb of God . 91 I c.2. Walsham, Alexandra, ‘The Pope’s Merchandise and the Jesuits’ Trumpery: Catholic Relics and Protestant Polemic in Post-Reformation England’, in Jennifer Spinks and Dagmar Eichberger, eds., Religion, the Supernatural, and Visual Culture in Early Modern Europe: An Album Amicorum for Charles Zika (Leiden: Brill, 2015), 370-409 Until the 1970 revision of the Roman Missal, the Agnus Dei was modified for Requiem Masses, and prayed not miserere nobis (have mercy on us) and dona nobis pacem (grant us peace), but dona eis requiem (grant them rest) and dona eis requiem sempiternam (grant them eternal rest). Conversion could also occur internally within the Catholic faith, when an individual achieved a more perfect spiritual state.Footnote Attempts to smuggle the agnus dei and other devotional objects into England and Ireland persisted to the end of Elizabeth’s reign, and continued to serve as links between missionary priests and Catholic laity. Deze pagina is voor het laatst bewerkt op 12 apr 2020 om 09:45. 67 A sixteenth-century agnus dei which was discovered at Lyford Grange in 1959, where the Jesuit Edmund Campion was captured in 1581, is now kept at Campion Hall in Oxford. This method also engaged a greater number of English Catholics in an evangelising process that constituted an act of resistance and disobedience to the queen’s laws.Footnote Walsham, Alexandra, ‘Beads, Books, and Bare Ruined Choirs: Transmutations of Catholic Ritual Life in Protestant England,’ in Ben Kaplan, Bob Moore, Henk Van Neerop, and Judith Pollmann, eds., Catholic Communities in Protestant States: Britain and the Netherlands 1570-1720 (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2006), 105-110 It is more difficult to determine the extent to which English Catholics perceived the agni dei as political links to Rome, and whether they believed that the possession of an agnus dei constituted an act of resistance that signalled obedience to the papacy. 10 They are sometimes round, sometimes oval in diameter. Rigg, JM, ed., Calendar of State Papers Relating to English Affairs Preserved Principally at Rome in the Vatican Archives and Library, 2 vols (London: HM Stationery Office, 1916), 1 1 And these great letters imprinted in the midst I.H.S.Footnote 19 London, Lambeth Palace Library, Carew MS 607 f. 35. Salzman, L.F., ed., A History of the County of Cambridge and the Isle of Ely, 10 vols (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1948-2002), 2: 312-314 4 The work of Howard Louthan and Trevor Johnson on this phenomenon in Europe has been discussed earlier in this article. Agnus Dei ("Lamb of God"). The agnus dei belonged to a special class of sacred objects called sacramentals: blessed objects which could exercise an effect over their possessor analogous to that of receiving the sacraments. He began to wear the agnus dei after meeting with a seminary priest in 1594.Footnote 33 TRADITIONAL AND HISTORICAL USES. 20 The outlawing of these objects was one part of legislation that considerably extended the treason laws and inhibited the practice of Catholicism in England. 19 Definition of Agnus Dei. In this environment, as access to the Mass, sacraments, and holy sites became increasingly limited, English Catholics found different ways of maintaining spiritual connections with the Roman Church.Footnote See also Her custodian, Sir Amias Paulet, was greatly disgruntled when Mary was allowed to receive ‘a box full of abominable trash, as beads of all sorts, pictures in silk of all sorts, with some Agnus Dei’ during her imprisonment at Chartley Hall in Staffordshire in April 1586, and Paulet found a number of agni dei concealed in a casket with pieces of silver in the chamber of her secretary, Claude Nau, during a search of his quarters in September.Footnote Walsham, Alexandra, ‘Miracles and the Counter-Reformation Mission to England’, Historical Journal 46 (2003): 798 52 The St. Omer agnus dei, on the other hand, is oblong and approximately 2.5 cm in length. During the rebellion, the Mass was openly celebrated in Durham and married clerics were forcibly ejected from their livings in Yorkshire.Footnote It is based on the saying of John the Baptist: “Behold, the Lamb of God, who takes away the sin of the world!” (John 1:29).In the Roman Catholic liturgy the Agnus Dei is employed in the following text: “Lamb of God, who takest away the sins of the world, have mercy upon us! 51 Calendar of the Patent Rolls Preserved in the Public Record Office, Henry IV, 4 vols (London: HM Stationery Office, 1903), 1: 224. Underwood, Lucy, Childhood, Youth, and Religious Dissent in Post-Reformation England (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar, chapter 2. Walsham, ‘Beads, Books, and Bare Ruined Choirs’, 105-6. Continuous efforts to import and distribute agni dei after 1571 not only point to the strength of English Catholicism, they also suggest that it may have been more closely aligned with the papacy, both politically and spiritually. Figure 5.2 It could also, however, act as a mediator of benediction where access to the sacraments was scarce. "subject": true, This particular agnus dei (see Figure 6) is from the collections of the English College formerly at St Omer, and is enclosed in the back of a reliquary case. Accounts of these events appear in the annual letters of the Society. 50, The increased efforts to smuggle agni dei into England coincide approximately with the first year of Gregory XIII’s pontificate (1572), when the Vatican would have produced and consecrated agni dei according to the convention for new popes, and with the beginning of efforts to send seminary priests into England to minister to Catholics. 1544, d. 1577)’, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004), http://www.oxforddnb.com/view/article/18440 (accessed 1 Oct 2017); See for instance Peter Davidson, ‘Recusant Catholic Spaces in Early Modern England’, in Corthell et al., Catholic Culture in Early Modern England, 19-51; Eamon Duffy, ‘Praying the Counter-Reformation’, in Kelly and Royal, Early Modern English Catholicism, 206-25; By Courtesy of the Master and Community of Campion Hall, Oxford. The agent in question is Maliverny Catlyn. 16 In the English context, Alexandra Walsham has highlighted the significance of sacramentals to Catholic communities because of the indulgences often associated with them, especially in the absence of priests who could grant absolution of sins and facilitate reconciliation.Footnote Because it was consecrated by the pope, the agnus dei was a precious devotional object amongst Catholics in early modern Europe; but in England, it also assumed unusual political connotations after 1570 because of growing conflict between Elizabeth I and the papacy.Footnote Figure 3 Lyford Grange Agnus Dei, 17 cm x 13.7 cm. 85 At the turn of the century William Bowes, the English ambassador in Scotland, reported the activities of John Ogilvy at the Scottish court, calling him ‘a dangerous instrument against God and his church’ who ‘professes himself a Roman Catholic’. The papal excommunication of Elizabeth, issued in the wake of this resistance, provoked substantial concerns in the queen’s government. 76 In theory, Catholics who had not reconciled themselves to the Roman Church and acknowledged this supremacy could not benefit from sacramentals like the agnus dei. Close this message to accept cookies or find out how to manage your cookie settings. By permission of the Governors of Stonyhurst College, Lancashire. In translation, it states ‘And we command and forbid all and sundry among the lords, subjects, peoples, and others aforesaid that they have not to obey her or her admonitions, orders, or laws. Victor Houliston, Ginevra Crosignani, and Thomas McCoog, eds., The Correspondence and Unpublished Papers of Robert Persons, SJ (1546-1610), vol. "lang": "en" Havens, Earle and Patton, Elizabeth, ‘Underground Networks, Prisons, and the Circulation of Counter-Reformation Books in Elizabethan England’, in James Kelly and Susan Royal, eds., Early Modern English Catholicism: Identity, Memory, and Counter-Reformation (Leiden: Brill, 2016), 165-188 Brome had received hers as a gift from her mother, but the source of Barram’s agnus dei is unknown.Footnote In post-Reformation England, the agnus dei therefore acquired new political connotations following the papal excommunication of Elizabeth I and the passage of laws that banned many sacred Catholic devotional materials in 1571. It is certainly telling that many English Catholics chose to keep an agnus dei despite the harsh penalties they faced if caught. Agnus Dei (Latijn voor Lam Gods) is een uitdrukking die verwijst naar Jezus Christus in zijn rol van de perfecte sacramentele opoffering die de zonden van de mens verzoent in de christelijke theologie.. See Figure 6, which is also suggestive of these connections. 14. In the English context, if one wished to reap the spiritual benefits of an agnus dei, this meant that the its possessor needed to have completely embraced the Roman Catholic faith and the beliefs in papal supremacy that came with it. Catholic Resistance in Elizabethan England: Robert Persons’s Jesuit Polemic, 1580-1610, The Society of Jesus in Wales, c. 1600-1679: Rediscovering the Cwm Jesuit Library at Hereford Cathedral, Held in Trust: 2008 Years of Sacred Culture, The Ashgate Research Companion to the Counter Reformation, Lambs, Coral, Teeth, and the Intimate Intersection of Religion and Magic in Renaissance Tuscany, Images, Relics, and Devotional Practices in Medieval and Renaissance Italy, Popular Culture and Popular Movements in Reformation Germany, The Stripping of the Altars: Traditional Religion in England 1400-1580, Madonnas and Miracles: The Holy Home in Renaissance Italy, Medieval Piety from Relics to the Eucharist, Foedera, Conventiones, Literae, et Cuiuscunque Acta Publica Inter Reges Angliae, Scrope, Henry, third Baron Scrope of Masham (c.1376–1415), Calendar of State Papers Relating to English Affairs Preserved Principally at Rome in the Vatican Archives and Library, Wills and Inventories Illustrative of the History, Manners, Language, and Statistics of the Northern Counties of England, A History of the County of Cambridge and the Isle of Ely, The Pope’s Merchandise and the Jesuits’ Trumpery: Catholic Relics and Protestant Polemic in Post-Reformation England, Religion, the Supernatural, and Visual Culture in Early Modern Europe: An Album Amicorum for Charles Zika, Wills and Administrations from the Knaresborough Court Rolls, Lest We Be Damned: Practical Innovation and Lived Experience Among Catholics in Protestant England, 1559-1642, Skeletons in the Cupboard: Relics After the English Reformation, Martyrs on the Move: Relics as Vindicators of Local Diversity in the Tridentine Church, Recusancy and Conformity in Early Modern England: Manuscript and Printed Sources in Translation, The Northern Rebellion of 1569: Faith, Politics, and Protest in Elizabethan England, Persuading the Queen’s Majesty’s Subjects from Their Allegiance: Treason, Reconciliation and Confessional Identity in Elizabethan England, Childhood, Youth, and Religious Dissent in Post-Reformation England, Percy, Anne, countess of Northumberland (1536–1591), The Construction of Martyrdom in the English Catholic Community, Converting Bohemia: Force and Persuasion in the Catholic Reformation, Magistrates, Madonnas, and Miracles: The Counter-Reformation in the Upper Palatinate, Unpublished Documents Relating to the English Martyrs, Blood, Tears, and Xavier Water: Missionaries and Popular Religion in the Eighteenth-Century Upper Palatinate, Popular Religion in Germany and Central Europe, Indulgences After Luther: Pardons in Counter-Reformation France, 1520-1720, Miracles and the Counter-Reformation Mission to England, “Virgo Becomes Virago”: Women in the Accounts of Seventeenth-Century English Catholic Missionaries, “For the lacke of true history”: Polemic, Conversion and Church History in Elizabethan England, Getting Along? 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