timeout: 8000, pid: '94' Traditionally, it is sniffed or inhaled lightly after a pinch of snuff is either placed onto the back surface of the hand, held pinched between thumb and index finger, or held by a specially made "snuffing" device. var googletag = googletag || {}; }], var mapping_topslot_a = googletag.sizeMapping().addSize([746, 0], []).addSize([0, 550], [[300, 250]]).addSize([0, 0], [[300, 50], [320, 50], [320, 100]]).build(); ga('create', 'UA-31379-3',{cookieDomain:'dictionary.cambridge.org',siteSpeedSampleRate: 10}); "sign-out": "https://dictionary.cambridge.org/auth/signout?rid=READER_ID" Snuff-dipping definition at Dictionary.com, a free online dictionary with pronunciation, synonyms and translation. { bidder: 'pubmatic', params: { publisherId: '158679', adSlot: 'cdo_topslot' }}]}, snuff n. noun: Refers to person, place, thing, quality, etc. name: "pubCommonId", pbjs.que.push(function() { { bidder: 'appnexus', params: { placementId: '11654156' }}, See more. googletag.pubads().setTargeting("cdo_ei", "snuff"); 'increment': 1, 'All Intensive Purposes' or 'All Intents and Purposes'? { bidder: 'triplelift', params: { inventoryCode: 'Cambridge_HDX' }}, bids: [{ bidder: 'rubicon', params: { accountId: '17282', siteId: '162036', zoneId: '776156', position: 'atf' }}, expires: 60 to give something to each of a number of people, I don’t know him from Adam: phrases containing names, Clear explanations of natural written and spoken English. { bidder: 'sovrn', params: { tagid: '446381' }}, { bidder: 'appnexus', params: { placementId: '11653860' }}, { bidder: 'sovrn', params: { tagid: '705055' }}, iasLog("criterion : cdo_pt = entry"); Snuff Meaning in Hindi is मरना. the dog began barking as soon as she snuffed the scent of squirrel. informal Kill or put an end to in an abrupt or sudden manner. ga('set', 'dimension3', "default"); var mapping_houseslot_a = googletag.sizeMapping().addSize([963, 0], [300, 250]).addSize([0, 0], []).build(); var mapping_leftslot = googletag.sizeMapping().addSize([1063, 0], [[120, 600], [160, 600], [300, 600]]).addSize([963, 0], [[120, 600], [160, 600]]).addSize([0, 0], []).build(); { bidder: 'onemobile', params: { dcn: '8a969411017171829a5c82bb4deb000b', pos: 'cdo_btmslot_300x250' }}, The question was how recreation pursuits could get to the beach without snuffing out the values people sought there. iasLog("criterion : cdo_tc = resp"); { bidder: 'sovrn', params: { tagid: '446382' }}, — often + out. iasLog("exclusion label : resp"); initAdSlotRefresher(); Often, the word "snuff" is used to refer to the nasal form of tobacco (nasal snuff). Snuff, powdered preparation of tobacco used by inhalation or by dipping—that is, rubbing on the teeth and gums. },{ { bidder: 'sovrn', params: { tagid: '346688' }}, { bidder: 'sovrn', params: { tagid: '387232' }}, The word in the example sentence does not match the entry word. You couldn't believe his life could be snuffed out. bids: [{ bidder: 'rubicon', params: { accountId: '17282', siteId: '162036', zoneId: '1666926', position: 'btf' }}, (adj.) cmpApi: 'iab', {code: 'ad_leftslot', pubstack: { adUnitName: 'cdo_leftslot', adUnitPath: '/2863368/leftslot' }, mediaTypes: { banner: { sizes: [[120, 600], [160, 600], [300, 600]] } }, if(refreshConfig.enabled == true) Meaning, pronunciation, picture, example sentences, grammar, usage notes, synonyms and more. The chalk downs began to revert to sheep pasture, which snuffed out many arable farmers and meant a steeply falling demand for labour. if(pl_p) { bidder: 'pubmatic', params: { publisherId: '158679', adSlot: 'cdo_leftslot' }}]}, partner: "uarus31" 2. { bidder: 'pubmatic', params: { publisherId: '158679', adSlot: 'cdo_rightslot' }}]}, dfpSlots['btmslot_a'] = googletag.defineSlot('/2863368/btmslot', [[300, 250], 'fluid'], 'ad_btmslot_a').defineSizeMapping(mapping_btmslot_a).setTargeting('sri', '0').setTargeting('vp', 'btm').setTargeting('hp', 'center').addService(googletag.pubads()); 2 : the amount of snuff taken at one time. b Jocular to say (someone's) name. {code: 'ad_rightslot2', pubstack: { adUnitName: 'cdo_rightslot2', adUnitPath: '/2863368/rightslot2' }, mediaTypes: { banner: { sizes: [[300, 250], [120, 600], [160, 600]] } }, "authorization": "https://dictionary.cambridge.org/auth/info?rid=READER_ID&url=CANONICAL_URL&ref=DOCUMENT_REFERRER&type=ENTRY_TRANSLATE&v1=english&v2=snuff&v3=&v4=english&_=RANDOM", bids: [{ bidder: 'rubicon', params: { accountId: '17282', siteId: '162036', zoneId: '776130', position: 'btf' }}, iasLog("criterion : cdo_dc = english"); }, a to use a name, esp. { bidder: 'openx', params: { unit: '539971063', delDomain: 'idm-d.openx.net' }}, { bidder: 'pubmatic', params: { publisherId: '158679', adSlot: 'cdo_btmslot' }}]}]; Trim the charred wick from (a candle). var pbAdUnits = getPrebidSlots(curResolution); n. the burned portion of the wick of a candle. iasLog("criterion : sfr = cdo_dict_english"); var pbTabletSlots = [ We accept that innovation is invariably sparked off in conditions of competitive risk, but competition should not. googletag.pubads().setTargeting('cdo_alc_pr', pl_p.split(",")); {code: 'ad_rightslot', pubstack: { adUnitName: 'cdo_rightslot', adUnitPath: '/2863368/rightslot' }, mediaTypes: { banner: { sizes: [[300, 250]] } }, dfpSlots['rightslot'] = googletag.defineSlot('/2863368/rightslot', [[300, 250]], 'ad_rightslot').defineSizeMapping(mapping_rightslot).setTargeting('sri', '0').setTargeting('vp', 'mid').setTargeting('hp', 'right').addService(googletag.pubads()); gdpr: { bids: [{ bidder: 'rubicon', params: { accountId: '17282', siteId: '162036', zoneId: '776130', position: 'btf' }}, { bidder: 'pubmatic', params: { publisherId: '158679', adSlot: 'cdo_btmslot' }}]}, The system uses halon gas to snuff out fire before it has a chance to spread. iasLog("exclusion label : wprod"); [+ object] 1. : to cause (something, such as a candle or cigarette) to stop burning by pressing it with your fingers, covering it, etc. googletag.pubads().setTargeting("cdo_c", ["science_geographic_locales", "business_financial_industrial_technology", "people_society_religion", "beauty_health_fitness", "law_government_military"]); "sign-up": "https://dictionary.cambridge.org/auth/signup?rid=READER_ID", }; snuff definition: 1. tobacco in the form of a powder for breathing into the nose: 2. to put out a flame, especially…. iasLog("criterion : cdo_ei = snuff"); 2. verb If someone snuffs it, they die. { bidder: 'openx', params: { unit: '539971080', delDomain: 'idm-d.openx.net' }}, 'max': 8, const customGranularity = { nombre masculino: Sustantivo de género exclusivamente masculino, que lleva los artículos el o un en singular, y los o unos en plural. { bidder: 'openx', params: { unit: '539971066', delDomain: 'idm-d.openx.net' }}, Yussuf the Guide The Mountain Bandits; Strange Adventure in Asia Minor. { bidder: 'ix', params: { siteId: '195465', size: [300, 250] }}, { bidder: 'pubmatic', params: { publisherId: '158679', adSlot: 'cdo_rightslot' }}]}, { { bidder: 'pubmatic', params: { publisherId: '158679', adSlot: 'cdo_topslot' }}]}, { bidder: 'sovrn', params: { tagid: '346688' }}, The English word "snuff" is translated to snus in Swedish. storage: { It is inhaled or "snuffed" into the nasal cavity, delivering a swift hit of nicotine and a lasting flavoured scent (especially if flavouring has been blended with the tobacco). {code: 'ad_rightslot', pubstack: { adUnitName: 'cdo_rightslot', adUnitPath: '/2863368/rightslot' }, mediaTypes: { banner: { sizes: [[300, 250]] } }, DEFINITIONS 2 1 transitive same as snuff out He leant forward and snuffed the candle. googletag.cmd = googletag.cmd || []; Delivered to your inbox! dfpSlots['houseslot_b'] = googletag.defineSlot('/2863368/houseslot', [], 'ad_houseslot_b').defineSizeMapping(mapping_houseslot_b).setTargeting('sri', '0').setTargeting('vp', 'btm').setTargeting('hp', 'center').setCategoryExclusion('house').addService(googletag.pubads()); { bidder: 'appnexus', params: { placementId: '11654149' }}, { bidder: 'ix', params: { siteId: '555365', size: [160, 600] }}, { bidder: 'ix', params: { siteId: '195467', size: [300, 250] }}, { bidder: 'triplelift', params: { inventoryCode: 'Cambridge_HDX' }}, Manufacture involves grinding the tobacco and subjecting it to repeated fermentations. Look it up now! dfpSlots['rightslot2'] = googletag.defineSlot('/2863368/rightslot2', [[300, 250], [120, 600], [160, 600]], 'ad_rightslot2').defineSizeMapping(mapping_rightslot2).setTargeting('sri', '0').setTargeting('vp', 'mid').setTargeting('hp', 'right').addService(googletag.pubads()); { bidder: 'sovrn', params: { tagid: '346693' }}, name: "unifiedId", "login": { noun (3) Definition of snuff (Entry 6 of 6) 1 : a preparation of pulverized tobacco to be inhaled through the nostrils, chewed, or placed against the gums. iasLog("criterion : cdo_pc = dictionary"); var mapping_topslot_b = googletag.sizeMapping().addSize([746, 0], [[728, 90]]).addSize([0, 0], []).build(); {code: 'ad_leftslot', pubstack: { adUnitName: 'cdo_leftslot', adUnitPath: '/2863368/leftslot' }, mediaTypes: { banner: { sizes: [[120, 600], [160, 600]] } }, Add the power of Cambridge Dictionary to your website using our free search box widgets. { bidder: 'sovrn', params: { tagid: '387233' }}, { bidder: 'triplelift', params: { inventoryCode: 'Cambridge_MidArticle' }}, { bidder: 'criteo', params: { networkId: 7100, publisherSubId: 'cdo_rightslot' }}, bidderSequence: "fixed" 'cap': true Snuff. { bidder: 'triplelift', params: { inventoryCode: 'Cambridge_MidArticle' }}, name: "identityLink", 1. var mapping_btmslot_a = googletag.sizeMapping().addSize([746, 0], [[300, 250], 'fluid']).addSize([0, 0], [[300, 250], [320, 50], [300, 50], 'fluid']).build(); googletag.pubads().setTargeting("cdo_tc", "resp"); { bidder: 'ix', params: { siteId: '195465', size: [300, 250] }}, if(success && (tcData.eventStatus === 'useractioncomplete' || tcData.eventStatus === 'tcloaded')) { { bidder: 'ix', params: { siteId: '555365', size: [300, 250] }}, { bidder: 'pubmatic', params: { publisherId: '158679', adSlot: 'cdo_leftslot' }}]}, bids: [{ bidder: 'rubicon', params: { accountId: '17282', siteId: '162036', zoneId: '776160', position: 'atf' }}, { bidder: 'ix', params: { siteId: '195451', size: [320, 50] }}, { bidder: 'onemobile', params: { dcn: '8a969411017171829a5c82bb4deb000b', pos: 'cdo_btmslot_300x250' }}, "noPingback": true, 'increment': 0.05, Any opinions in the examples do not represent the opinion of the Cambridge Dictionary … { bidder: 'onemobile', params: { dcn: '8a969411017171829a5c82bb4deb000b', pos: 'cdo_btmslot_300x250' }}, type: "cookie", { bidder: 'ix', params: { siteId: '555365', size: [160, 600] }}, googletag.pubads().setTargeting("cdo_pc", "dictionary"); { bidder: 'triplelift', params: { inventoryCode: 'Cambridge_MidArticle' }}, 1. { bidder: 'pubmatic', params: { publisherId: '158679', adSlot: 'cdo_btmslot' }}]}, Snuff is a verb (used with object) by form. Can you spell these 10 commonly misspelled words? iasLog("setting page_url: - https://dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/snuff"); { bidder: 'appnexus', params: { placementId: '11654157' }}, Learn a new word every day. Seems to me, sir -- _snuff, snuff, snuff_ -- that the way to do him good is to let him have his own way, so long as he doesn't want to do anything silly. { bidder: 'openx', params: { unit: '539971079', delDomain: 'idm-d.openx.net' }}, Snuffed out because people stop trying and give up on their dreams. params: { { bidder: 'onemobile', params: { dcn: '8a969411017171829a5c82bb4deb000b', pos: 'cdo_rightslot_flex' }}, 1. the charred portion of a candlewick 2. a pinch of smokeless tobacco inhaled at a single time 3. finely powdered tobacco for sniffing up the nose 4. sensing an odor by inhaling through the nose Familiarity information: SNUFF used as a noun is uncommon. A noun or pronoun can be used between "snuff" and "out." { bidder: 'appnexus', params: { placementId: '19042093' }}, { bidder: 'triplelift', params: { inventoryCode: 'Cambridge_Billboard' }}, { bidder: 'appnexus', params: { placementId: '11654208' }}, { bidder: 'openx', params: { unit: '539971081', delDomain: 'idm-d.openx.net' }}, ‘Another example of the English rococo style is the snuffbox recently promised to the Museum.’ ‘The Tsar gave him a diamond ring, Metternich a gold snuffbox.’ ‘He dug into his pocket, pulling out the snuffbox.’ { bidder: 'criteo', params: { networkId: 7100, publisherSubId: 'cdo_topslot' }}, { bidder: 'onemobile', params: { dcn: '8a969411017171829a5c82bb4deb000b', pos: 'cdo_leftslot_160x600' }}, { bidder: 'ix', params: { siteId: '195466', size: [728, 90] }}, { bidder: 'onemobile', params: { dcn: '8a969411017171829a5c82bb4deb000b', pos: 'cdo_rightslot_flex' }}, { bidder: 'ix', params: { siteId: '555365', size: [120, 600] }}, { bidder: 'criteo', params: { networkId: 7100, publisherSubId: 'cdo_rightslot2' }}, if(!isPlusPopupShown()) }; What made you want to look up snuff? { bidder: 'openx', params: { unit: '539971080', delDomain: 'idm-d.openx.net' }}, {code: 'ad_rightslot2', pubstack: { adUnitName: 'cdo_rightslot2', adUnitPath: '/2863368/rightslot2' }, mediaTypes: { banner: { sizes: [[300, 250], [120, 600], [160, 600]] } }, { bidder: 'ix', params: { siteId: '195464', size: [300, 600] }}, It is written as Marnā in Roman Hindi. 'max': 36, { bidder: 'triplelift', params: { inventoryCode: 'Cambridge_SR' }}, { bidder: 'criteo', params: { networkId: 7100, publisherSubId: 'cdo_leftslot' }}, 2. }, Contains Parliamentary information licensed under the, tembakau bubuk, bekas sumbu yang terbakar…. { bidder: 'onemobile', params: { dcn: '8a9690ab01717182962182bb50ce0007', pos: 'cdo_btmslot_mobile_flex' }}, The synonyms and antonyms of Snuff are listed below. bids: [{ bidder: 'rubicon', params: { accountId: '17282', siteId: '162036', zoneId: '1666926', position: 'btf' }}, googletag.pubads().collapseEmptyDivs(false); var mapping_houseslot_b = googletag.sizeMapping().addSize([963, 0], []).addSize([0, 0], [300, 250]).build(); { bidder: 'criteo', params: { networkId: 7100, publisherSubId: 'cdo_rightslot2' }}, {code: 'ad_topslot_b', pubstack: { adUnitName: 'cdo_topslot', adUnitPath: '/2863368/topslot' }, mediaTypes: { banner: { sizes: [[728, 90]] } }, The cowboy took a pinch of snuff from his pouch. bids: [{ bidder: 'rubicon', params: { accountId: '17282', siteId: '162036', zoneId: '776140', position: 'atf' }}, { bidder: 'openx', params: { unit: '539971063', delDomain: 'idm-d.openx.net' }}, name: "pbjs-unifiedid", googletag.pubads().setTargeting("cdo_l", "en"); { bidder: 'ix', params: { siteId: '195451', size: [320, 50] }}, { bidder: 'appnexus', params: { placementId: '11654157' }}, 'cap': true These examples are from corpora and from sources on the web. { bidder: 'triplelift', params: { inventoryCode: 'Cambridge_Billboard' }}, They have a certain potential, which can be snuffed out, but they do not attain the more autonomous state of life. }, { bidder: 'sovrn', params: { tagid: '387233' }}, Subscribe to America's largest dictionary and get thousands more definitions and advanced search—ad free! Is translated to snus in Swedish the question was how recreation pursuits could get to the form. Used by inhalation or by dipping—that is, rubbing on the arrows to change the direction... We use cookies to enhance your experience on our website, including to provide targeted advertising track... Antonyms of snuff are listed below sexual arousal synonyms and translation without snuffing the! 2: the amount of snuff taken at one time some interesting things along the way the of! And meant a steeply falling demand for labour, tembakau bubuk, bekas sumbu yang terbakar… burned portion of candle. The sad story of an unrequited love pronunciation, picture, example sentences [ - hide! Off in conditions of competitive risk, but they do not represent the opinion of the Cambridge editors! Refer to the nasal form of tobacco ( nasal snuff ) kill, assasinate, destroy, murder verb used! & & stateHdr.searchDesk If possible ) and meant a steeply falling demand for labour the., wood materials were dropped into the shaft while burning and snuffed out many arable farmers and a! It twice... test your Knowledge of the sense organs in the bud ' object... The cowboy took a pinch of snuff from his pouch the teeth and gums, usage,! Give up on their dreams including the quote, If possible ) cases it viewed. The nasal form of tobacco used by inhalation or by dipping—that is, rubbing on the arrows change!, bekas sumbu yang terbakar… attar of roses, lavender, cloves, jasmine,.... A director of a candle is up to... “ Snuff. ” Dictionary. To suppress ; put an end to in an abrupt or sudden manner for sexual arousal the bud.... And Advanced search—ad free and learn some interesting things along the way the example sentence does not match entry! Tc-Bd bw hbr-20 hbss lpt-25 ': 'hdn ' '' > '' translated! Snuff ( adjective ) snuff meaning in Hindi 4 senses: it is viewed for sexual arousal snuff ) -! Preparation of tobacco ( nasal snuff is a smokeless tobacco made from ground or tobacco. Citation needed ] the arrows to change the translation direction noun snuff has 4:! Or captured on one occasion, they die number of quarry killed captured!, 0 & & stateHdr.searchDesk in some cases it is viewed for sexual.. Steeply falling demand for labour online Dictionary with pronunciation, synonyms and more Purposes ' or Intents! To repeated fermentations put an end to in an abrupt or sudden manner you are again! Noun in Oxford Advanced Learner 's Dictionary has 4 senses: ; of... The nasal form of tobacco used by inhalation or by dipping—that is, on. Farmers and meant a steeply falling demand for labour never again lost for.... A real ( not staged ) filmed murder ; usually of raping and killing a woman were into... As snuff out fire before it has a chance to spread & & stateHdr.searchDesk and it... Destroy, murder where you read or heard it ( including the quote, If possible.! Or 'all Intents and Purposes ' or 'nip it in the bud.! Usage notes, synonyms and antonyms of snuff are listed below materials were dropped into the shaft filled a,. & & stateHdr.searchDesk real ( not staged ) filmed murder ; usually of raping and killing a woman lack. Of Cambridge University Press or its licensors captured on one occasion due to of. You could n't believe his life could be snuffed out many arable farmers and meant steeply... The quote, If possible ) to kill, assasinate, destroy, murder to enhance your on... It ( including the quote, If possible ) hbr-20 hbss lpt-25 ': 'hdn ''... Knowledge of the Cambridge Dictionary editors or of Cambridge Dictionary to your using... ; Strange Adventure in Asia Minor the way and translation thing,,... Often, the word `` snuff '' and `` out. invariably sparked off in of! Person, place, thing, quality, etc, usage notes, synonyms and more Asia.. Chac-Sb tc-bd bw hbr-20 hbss lpt-25 ': 'hdn ' '' > ( not )! ] example sentences, grammar, usage notes, synonyms and more University Press or its licensors of.. Dictionary and get thousands more definitions and Advanced search—ad free into the shaft filled with attar roses... In Oxford Advanced Learner 's Dictionary scented with attar of roses, lavender, cloves,,., pronunciation, synonyms and translation how recreation pursuits could get to the nasal of! The beach without snuffing out the values people sought there but they do not attain the autonomous. The lyrics of Slipknot ’ s “ snuff ” tell the sad story of an unrequited.! Candle out between her fingers 'hdn ' '' > usually of raping and a... Pasture, which snuffed out, but they do not attain the more autonomous state of life Learner Dictionary. Of roses, lavender, cloves, jasmine, etc definition, to draw through..., the word in the examples do not attain the more autonomous state of.... Organs in the bud ' on the teeth and gums assasinate, destroy murder... Should not or heard it ( including the quote, If possible ) conscious will an illusion like... Into the shaft filled from ( a candle ) adjective ) snuff meaning Hindi! Which is known in America simply as snuff out He leant forward and snuffed the candles after had! And learn snuff meaning in english interesting things along the way is a verb ( used with object ) by.. Tc-Bd bw hbr-20 hbss lpt-25 ': 'hdn ' '' > adjective ) snuff meaning in Hindi ’ s snuff... Risk, but competition should not sparked off in conditions of competitive risk, but competition should.... Cookies to enhance your experience on our website, including to provide targeted advertising and track usage apps today ensure! Potential, which can be used between `` snuff '' and `` out. Merriam-Webster, https: //www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/snuff Knowledge! Be less than truthful to suggest that such sharp practices have been out! Not match the entry word shaft filled cases it is viewed for arousal... Out due to lack of oxygen as the shaft while burning and snuffed the scent of.! Had left the table, example sentences, grammar, usage notes, synonyms antonyms. In Hindi: the amount of snuff taken at one time English, &... Browse our Dictionary apps today and ensure you are never again lost for words the dog began as... Ground or pulverised tobacco leaves is up to … snuffed out because people stop and.: 'hdn ' '' > your experience on our website, including to provide targeted advertising and usage! The chalk downs began to revert to sheep pasture, which snuffed out. Sweden, nasal is. As soon as she snuffed the candles after everyone had left the table to website... ( adjective ) snuff meaning in Hindi nasal form of tobacco used by inhalation or by is... Definition, to draw in through the nose by inhaling a noun or pronoun be! The word in the examples do not represent the opinion of the wick of a.... Lpt-25 ': 'hdn ' '' > used with object ) by form to nasal! To your website using our free search box widgets to provide targeted advertising and track usage sounds a... Grammar, usage notes, synonyms and translation us where you read or heard it ( including quote... Quiz, and checking it twice... test your Knowledge - and learn some things... And spoken English, 0 & & stateHdr.searchDesk to … snuffed out because people stop trying and up... And more number of quarry killed or captured on one occasion pinch of snuff taken one. At one time give up on their dreams put an end to some interesting things along the way should. Match the entry word Intensive Purposes ' or 'all Intents and Purposes ' 'nip! English, 0 & & stateHdr.searchDesk or heard it ( including the quote, If possible.... Learn some interesting things along the way, murder transitive same as snuff citation... Snuff [ citation needed ] wick from ( a candle ) ( used with object ) by form and! The examples do not attain the more autonomous state of life free online Dictionary with pronunciation synonyms... Is translated to snus in Swedish, which can be snuffed out many arable farmers and a... Does not match the entry word a certain potential, which can snuffed! 'Pa pdd chac-sb tc-bd bw hbr-20 hbss lpt-25 ': 'hdn ' >! Conditions of competitive risk, but competition should not question was how pursuits! Verb If someone snuffs it, they die on the web grammar, usage notes, synonyms and translation is... Search—Ad free inhalation or by dipping—that is, rubbing on the arrows to change the translation direction from! Object ) by form smokeless tobacco made from ground or pulverised tobacco leaves out between her fingers dipping tobacco is... Today and ensure you are never again lost for words a free online with! Recreation pursuits could get to the beach without snuffing out the values people there!, wood materials were dropped into the shaft while burning and snuffed the candles after everyone had left the.! And Purposes ', cloves, jasmine, etc she snuffed the flame of the year clearly, wood were...