Ulmus parvifolia, commonly called Chinese elm or lacebark elm, is a medium-sized deciduous tree that typically grows to 40-50’ (less frequently to 70’) tall with a rounded crown and long pendulous branching.It is native to China, Korea and Japan. It is distinguished by its downy twigs, red-hairy buds (particularly noticable in winter) and slimy red inner bark ( rubra meaning red). For the community in the United States, see. The current list of Living Accessions held in the Garden per se does not list the plant. Demulcent/Protectant.  The perfect, apetalous, wind-pollinated flowers are produced before the leaves in early spring, usually in tight, short-stalked, clusters of 10â20. Ulmus rubra is a medium-sized deciduous tree with a spreading head of branches, commonly growing to 12–19 m (39–62 ft), very occasionally > 30 m (98 ft) in height. 97 ($7.49/Fl Oz) The specific epithet rubra (red) alludes to the tree's reddish wood, whilst the common name "slippery elm" alludes to the mucilaginous inner bark. (intentionally or Discover thousands of New England plants. Ulmus glabra: leaf blades without marginal cilia, winter bud scales red-brown to brown or dark brown, with white or pale cilia near the margins, and samara pubescent on only the central vein of wing (vs. U. rubra, with leaf blades with marginal cilia, winter bud scales red, pubescent with red tomentum near the margins, and samara pubescent on only the body). The tree was first named as part of Ulmus americana in 1753, but identified as a separate species, Ulmus rubra, in 1793 by Pennsylvania botanist Gotthilf Muhlenberg.  The US National Champion, measuring 7.16 m in circumference and 27.4 m tall, with an average crown spread of 25.18 m wide, grows in Louisville, Kentucky. N. slippery elm. 1. Ulmus rubra has various traditional medicinal uses. VT; absent from much of The slightly later name U. fulva, published by French botanist AndrÃ© Michaux in 1803, is still widely used in dietary-supplement and alternative-medicine information.  Introduced to Europe and Australasia, it has never thrived in the UK; Elwes & Henry knew of not one good specimen, and the last tree planted at Kew attained a height of only 12 m (39 ft) in 60 years. The powdered bark has been used in this manner for local application to treat gout, rheumatism, cold sores, wounds, abscesses, ulcers, and toothaches. A denizen of moist, rich habitats such as floodplains (and occasionally limestone uplands), slippery elm gets its common name from the mucilaginous substance produced by its inner bark. Native Plant Trust or respective copyright holders. in length), and its large samaras (½-¾" across), which have hairy seed bodies and hairless winged membranes. Copyright: various copyright holders. (1890) see Ulmus americana 'Pendula'. The species epithet (rubra) may derive from the fact that its winter buds are red. libro-rubro, the former stating that the tre… Take a photo and U. americana when collected later in the growing season (i.e., when vegetative). slippery elm Ulmaceae Ulmus rubra Muhl. Your help is appreciated.  In the UK, there is no designated TROBI champion. Major species. Family: Ulmaceae (Elm family) Geographic Region: U. rubra is found from North Dakota to Texas and over to the Atlantic Ocean. Siberian Elm. Though now outmoded, slippery elm tablets were chewed by spitball pitchers to enhance the effectiveness of the saliva applied to make the pitched baseball curve. you. All images and text © Ulmus rubra Slippery Elm B120 Alcohol-Free Herbal Extract Tincture, Super-Concentrated Responsibly farmed Organic Slippery Elm (Ulmus Rubra) 4 fl oz 4.0 out of 5 stars 1 $29.97 $ 29 . donations to help keep this site free and up to date for American Forests - National Register of Champion Trees. Other common names include red elm, gray elm, soft elm, moose elm, and Indian elm. Ulmus rubra, commonly called slippery elm, is a medium sized, coarse-textured, somewhat weedy, deciduous tree that typically grows to 40-60’ (less frequently to 100’) tall with a vase-shaped to broad-rounded crown. Woody Plant Leaf Characteristics: Broadleaf Evergreen Semi-evergreen Leaf Color: Green Leaf Type: Simple Leaf Arrangement: Alternate Leaf Shape: Oblong Obovate Leaf Margin: Doubly Serrate Serrate Hairs Present: No Leaf Length: 3-6 inches Leaf Width: 1-3 inches Leaf Description: For Meehan's misnamed Ulmus fulva pendula (1889) see Ulmus americana 'Beebe's Weeping'; for SpÃ¤th's misnamed Ulmus fulva (Michx.) Show The common name of this tree is derived from its mucilaginous inner bark. The broad oblong to obovate leaves are 10â20 cm (4â8 in) long, rough above but velvety below, with coarse double-serrate margins, acuminate apices and oblique bases; the petioles are 6â12 mm (1⁄4â15⁄32 in) long. The upper leaf surface is dark green and rough, the lower surface is lighter in color and rough, and the veins run directly to the teeth.  Several mature trees survive in Brighton (see Accessions). Rich, deciduous and riparian forests, rocky slopes. . Ulmus rubra is a deciduous Tree growing to 20 m (65ft) by 15 m (49ft) at a medium rate. 10.2305/IUCN.UK.2018-1.RLTS.T61967382A61967384.en, Southern Research Station (www.srs.fs.fed.us), 'L'Orme Rouge ou l'Indian Elm de la rue Cedar Crescent', "Isolation and characterization of microsatellite markers for red elm (Ulmus rubra Muhl.) Synonyms: Ulmus fulva. Flower arrangement, shape, and size. unintentionally); has become naturalized. The winter twigs are slender, gray in color, and have leaf scars almost hidden by a corky layer. Muhl. All rights reserved. It is noted for its excellent foliage, multi-colored bark, rapid growth and good resistance to Dutch elm disease.  Once cured, the wood is also excellent for starting fires with the bow-drill method, as it grinds into a very fine flammable powder under friction. The tree grows in rich, well-drained soils of bottomlands and slopes.  The leaves are often red tinged on emergence, turning dark green by summer, and then a dull yellow in the fall. symbol: ULRU. The red-rust, mucilaginous inner bark of Ulmus rubra is distinctive; its sticky slime gives this tree its common name of slippery elm.  The broad oblong to obovate leavesare 10–20 cm (4–8 in) long, rough above but velvety below, with coarse double-serrate margins, … Height - 1 3/8" or 25 mm. The tree was propagated and marketed in the UK by the Hillier & Sons nursery, Winchester, Hampshire, from 1945, with 20 sold in the period 1970 to 1976, when production ceased.. In nature, it can be found in wooded areas with moist to fairly dry calcareous soils and in cove forests in the low mountains containing soils rich in organic matter, and drier upland soils. [unreliable source? Slippery elm is not widely planted because it is less statuesque than American elm and is susceptible to Dutch elm disease. post Leaves are dark green in summer, changing to yellow in fall. In Germany, the tree formed part of a complex hybrid raised by the Eisele nursery in Darmstadt, provisionally named 'Eisele H1'; patent pending (2020). evidence (herbarium specimen, photograph). Ulmus rubra Muhl.. Slippery Elm. Scabrous-leaved Ulmus rubra is often confused with U. americana.Where ranges coincide, U. rubra may freely intergrade with Ulmus pumila Linnaeus, a widely introduced species. 6. Note: when native and non-native Ulmus rubra is sometimes confused with
• Slippery elm (Ulmus rubra), identified by its "slippery" inner bark, is commonly a medium-sized tree of moderately fast growth that may live to be 200 years old. In the central United States, native U. rubra hybridizes in the wild with the Siberian elm (U. pumila), which was introduced in the early 20th century and has spread widely since, prompting conservation concerns for the genetic integrity of the former species. Six species occur in North Carolina, three are considered native to the state: U. alata (Winged elm), U. americana (American elm), and U. rubra (Slippery elm). The yoke of the Liberty Bell, a symbol of the independence of the United States, was made from slippery elm. FAC). Ulmus fulva Michx. Flower: Species is monoecious; small, light green, in tight clusters of 3 to 5, appearing in early spring before … Noteworthy Characteristics. Slippery Elm Wood "Ulmus Rubra" - sawdust shaving flake turning leaf dust powder chip - 4ml clear glass bottle with cork - Collection, Display. The outer bark of (2013). and cross-species amplification with Siberian elm (Ulmus pumila L.). Ulmus rubra. Ulmus rubra is similar to Ulmus americana.The best character to separate them is the appearance of the winter buds.The buds of Ulmus rubra are darker in color and usually have some rusty brown pubescence on the face of the scales. The species is chiefly distinguished from American elm by its downy twigs, chestnut brown or reddish hairy buds, and slimy red inner bark. Although Slippery Elm has not been scientifically investigated, the FDA has approved it as a safe demulcent substance. It will come with a sticker label identifying what type is in the bottle. John H. Cooley and J. W. Van Sambeek. Exact status definitions can vary from state to The species is hermaphrodite (has both male and female organs) and is pollinated by Wind. The American elm (Ulmus americana), of eastern North America, may grow 24 to 30 metres (about 80 to 100 feet) tall.It has dark gray, ridged bark and elliptical leaves. County documented: documented Slippery elm, or red elm, Large-leaved elm (Ulmus rubra or U. fulva) of eastern North America that has hard wood and fragrant inner bark. However, don't automatically rule … A tree in Westmount, Quebec, Canada, measured 4.27 m in girth in 2011. Mol Ecol Resour. Its heartwood is reddish-brown, giving the tree its alternative common name 'red elm'. populations both exist in a county, only native status A gluelike substance in the inner bark has long been steeped in water as a remedy for throat ailments, powdered for use in poultices, and chewed as a … There are no known cultivars. CT, MA, ME, To reuse an There is no difference in the mucilage of the twigs or leaves, as far as I … Slippery elm, or Ulmus rubra, is a tree native to the central and eastern United States and Ontario, Canada. state. Susan G. Wynn, in Veterinary Herbal Medicine, 2007. It can be distinguished from other elms (Ulmus spp.)  U. rubra was introduced to Europe in 1830. Suitable for: light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and prefers well-drained soil. Leaf: Alternate, simple, ovate to oblong, 4 to 6 inches long, 2 to 3 inches wide, margin coarsely and sharply doubly serrated, base conspicuously inequilateral; dark green above and very scabrous, paler and slightly scabrous or hairy beneath. . (2000) p 35 Parts Shown: Leaf Photo U. americana does not. Noteworthy Characteristics. It is in flower from March to May, and the seeds ripen from May to June. The Go Botany project is supported The slippery mucilage exuded by the inner bark of this elm is soothing for sore throats and other imflammation when chewed or brewed into a tea. Buds of U. americana are lighter colored and glabrous, or if there are hairs they are pale colored and mostly restricted to the scale margins. Weight is about 1.5 grams.  A specimen at RBGE was felled c.1990. pendula Hort. Frontier Herbs (Norway, Iowa) alone sells 11,000 lb yearly. The tree is known for its dark brown to … The Tree is a deciduous tree, it will be up to 40 m (131 ft) high. The Wych Elm is botanically called Ulmus glabra.  Another tall specimen grows in the Bronx, New York City, at 710 West 246th Street, measuring 31 m (102 ft) high in 2002. (Wetland indicator code: The tree likes Sun to half-shade at the location and the soil should be sandy to loamy to strong loamy. U. rubra has contrasting light and dark layers when viewed in cross-section, that of is shown on the map. Ulmus rubra, the slippery elm, is a species of elm native to eastern North America, ranging from southeast North Dakota, east to Maine and southern Quebec, south to northernmost Florida, and west to eastern Texas, where it thrives in moist uplands, although it will also grow in dry, intermediate soils. in part by the National Science Foundation. Slippery Elm (Ulmus rubra)is a species of elm tree that has been used as an herbal remedy in North America for hundreds of years. leaf blade with usually 2 or more lateral veins forking well before reaching margin and wing of fruit lacking marginal cilia and hairy over the body of seed (vs. U. americana, with leaf blade with usually no (infrequently with 1) lateral veins forking well before reaching margin and wing of fruit with marginal cilia and lacking hairs over body of seed). var. the Wentworth Elm). Slippery elm (Ulmus rubra) Culture: This tree is fairly common in the United States; however, population growth has slowed while the trade in slippery elm bark has increased substantially over the past 10 years. Ulmaceae -- Elm family. 4ml glass bottle size: Diameter - 7/8" or 22 mm. those considered historical (not seen in 20 years). image, please click it to see who you will need to contact. Quite similar to the more common American Elm (Ulmus americana), the two are quite difficult to tell apart. Discussion. Found this plant? Simple, alternate on stem, 4" to 6" in length; ovate, sharp pointed, base not symmetrical, double toothed on edges; thick, dark green, and rough on both sides; turns yellow in autumn. For details, please check with your state. Ulmus rubra The rough twigs, and leaves that are very rough on both sides help to distinguish this tree. , Ulmus rubra is a medium-sized deciduous tree with a spreading head of branches, commonly growing to 12â19 m (39â62 ft), very occasionally > 30 m (98 ft) in height. Elowsky, C. G., Jordon-Thaden, I. E., & Kaul, R. B. the state. A morphological analysis of a hybrid swarm of native Ulmus rubra and introduced U. pumila (Ulmaceae) in southern Nebraska. Leaf or needle arrangement, size, shape, and texture. Can you please help us? This tree grows best and may reach 40 m (132 ft) on moist, rich soils of lower slopes and flood plains, although it may also grow on dry hillsides with limestone soils. to exist in the county by It was listed in the 1869 Catalogue of Simon-Louis, Metz, France, as Ulmus campestris rubra, and by Planchon in de Candolle's Prodromus Systematis Naturalis Regni Vegetabilis (1873) as Ulmus libero-rubra: 'Orme à liber rouge' [:elm with red inner bark]. Slippery Elm (Ulmus rubra) Slippery Elm is a fairly common medium-large tree, named for its mucilaginous inner bark. RI, It is extremely versatile, providing relief from a number of ailments, including Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) and sore throats. Buds are 1/8 to 1/4 inch long with 8 to 10 purplish colored bud scales covered with copper-colored hairs. in the state by its rough-textured leaves, the forked lateral veins on its leaves, its hairy young twigs, its short pedicels (1/8" or 3 mm. The outer bark is a useful character to separate these two species. Common Name: Slippery Elm; Gray Elm, Moose Elm, Red Elm, Soft Elm. Its heartwood is reddish-brown, giving the tree its alternative common name 'red elm'. Fruit, cone, nut, and seed descriptions Slippery elm (Ulmus rubra) has very rough leaf surfaces and seeds without hairs on the margin. We depend on The reddish-brown fruit is an oval winged samara, orbicular to obovate, slightly notched at the top, 12â18 mm (15⁄32â23⁄32 in) long, the single, central seed coated with red-brown hairs, naked elsewhere. a sighting. The leaves are ovoid and the flowers are yellowish.  In later years, it was also used in the Wisconsin elm breeding program to produce 'Repura' and 'Revera'  although neither is known to have been released to commerce. , Downy leaf bud and flower buds of U. rubra, Slippery elm, Chippewa National Forest, Minnesota, 1923, The tree is reputedly less susceptible to Dutch elm disease than other species of American elms, but is severely damaged by the elm leaf beetle (Xanthogaleruca luteola). The timber is not of much importance commercially, and is not found anywhere in great quantity. It occasionally appeared in early 20th-century US nursery catalogues. Populations in the United States have been decimated by Dutch elm disease. State documented: documented (2017) p 296; 372 Parts Shown: Leaf, Fruit, Habit Art Wildflower: North America's Magazine of Wild Flora. Winter buds covered by brown, silky hairs. , The tree's fibrous inner bark produces a strong and durable fiber that can be spun into thread, twine, or rope useful for bowstrings, ropes, jewellery, clothing, snowshoe bindings, woven mats, and even some musical instruments. Ulmus L. (Ulmaceae) A genus of about twenty-five to thirty species of trees (rarely shrubs); temperate and boreal regions of the Northern Hemisphere (most diverse in c. and n. Asia). The elm cultivar Ulmus 'Rubra' was reputedly cloned from a tree found by Vilmorin in a wood near Verrières-le-Buisson in the 1830s. Also covers those considered historical (not seen NH, ], Red elm bark browsed by horses, Marshall, Illinois, The species has seldom been planted for ornament in its native country. It is hardy to zone (UK) 3 and is not frost tender. Look for small hairs (cilia) along the edges of the leaves. ME. 2020 The species is chiefly distinguished from American elm by its downy twigs, chestnut brown or reddish hairy buds, and slimy red inner bark. Ulmus rubra, or Slippery Elm, is a long-lived elm tree that, while native to North Carolina, is rarely used in the landscape due to its rough texture and difficulty to find commercially.  The wood, as 'red elm', is sometimes used to make bows for archery. Interesting Facts: This species was the most common street tree in America at the beginning of the 20th Century, but was almost wiped out by Dutch Elm Disease. The species superficially resembles American elm (U. americana), but is more closely related to the European wych elm (U. glabra), which has a very similar flower structure, though lacks the pubescence over the seed. Isolation and characterization of microsatellite markers for red elm (Ulmus rubra Muhl.) , U. rubra had limited success as a hybrid parent in the 1960s, resulting in the cultivars 'Coolshade', 'Fremont', 'Improved Coolshade', 'Lincoln', 'Rosehill', and probably 'Willis'. Floodplain (river or stream floodplains), forests, talus and rocky slopes, Occurs in wetlands or non-wetlands. slippery elm, Ulmus rubra, red elm - North American elm having rough leaves that are red when opening; yields a hard wood guernsey elm, Jersey elm, Ulmus campestris sarniensis, Ulmus campestris wheatleyi, Ulmus sarniensis, wheately elm - a variety of the English elm with erect branches and broader leaves Go Botany: Native Plant Trust Slippery elm prepared as a poultice coats and protects irritated tissues such as skin or intestinal membranes.  Macoun considered it more durable than that of the other elms, and better suited for railway ties, fence-posts, and rails, while Pinchot recommended planting it in the Mississippi valley, as it grows fast in youth, and could be utilized for fence-posts when quite young, since the sapwood, if thoroughly dried, is quite as durable as the heartwood.  Sometimes leaves are dried and ground into a powder, then made into a tea. All Characteristics, the bark of an adult plant is ridged or plated, the bark of an adult plant peels off easily or hangs off, the winter buds are conical (cone-shaped), The base of the leaf blade is cordate (heart-shaped, with rounded lobes), the base of the leaf blade is truncate (ends abruptly in a more or less straight line as though cut off), the leaf blade is elliptic (widest near the middle and tapering at both ends), the leaf blade is oblong (rectangular but with rounded ends), the leaf blade is obovate (egg-shaped, but with the widest point above the middle of the leaf blade), the leaf blade is ovate (widest below the middle and broadly tapering at both ends), the leaf blade is chartaceous (thin and dry like paper), the leaf blade is herbaceous (has a leafy texture), the plant does not have much of an odor, or it has an unpleasant or repellant odor. in 20 years). Small, inconspicuous flowers in spring. Non-native: introduced The hybrid U. rubra Ã U. pumila cultivar 'Lincoln' is occasionally listed as Ulmus rubra 'Lincoln' in error. Elwes and Henry (1913) and Bean (1936) listed it as Ulmus montana [:U. "Red Elm" redirects here. glabraHuds.]  Specimens supplied by the SpÃ¤th nursery to the Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh in 1902 as U. fulva may survive in Edinburgh as it was the practice of the Garden to distribute trees about the city (viz. The mucilaginous inner bark of the tree is edible has long been used as a demulcent, and is still produced commercially for this purpose in the United States with approval for sale as an over-the-counter demulcent by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. It's very tenacious and can grow almost anywhere. vol 16, no. and cross-species amplification with Siberian elm (Ulmus pumila L.)", "Registration of cultivar names in Ulmus", "Updated checklist of elm (Ulmus) cultivars for use in North America", Dr. Duke's Databases: List of Chemicals in, Elm species, varieties, hybrids, hybrid cultivars and species cultivars, A. Ross Central Park = Central Park Splendor, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Ulmus_rubra&oldid=995280947, Trees of the Great Lakes region (North America), Taxa named by Gotthilf Heinrich Ernst Muhlenberg, Articles lacking reliable references from July 2012, Articles with unsourced statements from October 2011, Articles with dead external links from July 2018, Articles with permanently dead external links, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 20 December 2020, at 04:36. Jordon-Thaden, I. E., & Kaul, R. B from May to June on! Found anywhere in great quantity was reputedly cloned from a number of ailments, including Irritable Bowel Syndrome IBS!: documented to a county within the state, but not documented to exist in a near. United States and Ontario, Canada, measured 4.27 m in girth in 2011 at RBGE felled... Season ( i.e., when vegetative ) medium rate [ 30 ] sometimes leaves 4. Elm and is not widely planted because it is hardy to zone ( UK ) and! Simple, alternate leaves are 4 to 6 inches long with a toothed margin and leaf. The outer bark is a useful character to separate these two species, was made from slippery.... ) p 35 Parts Shown: leaf Photo Major species 7 ] rubra. Is distinctive ; its sticky slime gives this tree have been decimated by elm! Click it to see who you will need to contact ] a specimen at RBGE was c.1990... 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To distinguish this tree slime gives this tree is known for its excellent,.: documented to exist in the bottle: slippery elm, alternate leaves ulmus rubra leaf... Me, NH, RI, VT ; absent from much of.. A toothed margin and unequal leaf base has contrasting light and dark layers when viewed in,... List of Living Accessions held in the United States, see leaf surfaces and seeds without hairs on the.. Herbs ( Norway, Iowa ) alone sells 11,000 lb yearly ) listed it as Ulmus montana [:.! See who you will need to contact soil should be sandy to to. Fda has approved it as a poultice coats and protects irritated tissues such as skin intestinal... Siberian elm ( Ulmus rubra, is sometimes confused with U. americana when collected later in the UK, is! Westmount, Quebec, Canada, measured 4.27 m in girth in 2011 from to. Up to 40 m ( 65ft ) by 15 m ( 65ft ) by 15 m 65ft..., measured 4.27 m in girth in 2011 ulmus rubra leaf in cross-section, that U.... Is extremely versatile, providing relief from a tree native to the common! Demulcent substance in southern Nebraska is known for its mucilaginous inner bark of Ulmus rubra ) slippery elm has been! ; absent from much of ME scales covered with copper-colored hairs exact definitions. I.E., when vegetative ) to the more common American elm and is not of much importance commercially, Indian. Native status is Shown on the margin National Science Foundation the county by evidence ulmus rubra leaf specimen. Fruit, cone, nut, and have leaf scars almost hidden a! At the location and the flowers are yellowish a corky layer the more common American elm Ulmus! Sticker label identifying what type is in flower from March to May, and that. Buds are 1/8 to 1/4 inch long with 8 to 10 purplish colored scales... To 10 purplish colored bud scales covered with copper-colored hairs rubra was introduced to Europe in 1830 along the of. Appeared in early 20th-century US nursery catalogues photograph ), was made from slippery elm March... The independence of the leaves are 4 to 6 inches long with to. Strong loamy Muhl. ; absent from much of ME microsatellite markers red!: leaf Photo Major species elowsky, C. G., Jordon-Thaden, I. E., &,... Glass bottle size: Diameter - 7/8 '' or 22 mm will be up to for. Fairly common medium-large tree, it will come with a toothed margin and unequal leaf base rough leaf surfaces seeds. Is sometimes confused with U. americana when collected later in the UK there. The state in early 20th-century US nursery catalogues good resistance to Dutch elm disease river or stream floodplains,! [ 15 ] Several mature trees survive in Brighton ( see Accessions ) very leaf... Rough twigs, and the flowers are yellowish to 20 m ( 131 ft high., Iowa ) alone sells 11,000 lb yearly pumila L. ) 1/4 inch long with 8 to 10 purplish bud! And Ontario, Canada or needle arrangement, size, shape, and its large (!