Female beetles can fly short distances; males have rudimentary wings. Female comes out of the tunnel and fly from tree to tree depositing eggs in the maturing beans. An account is given of the bionomics of Stephanoderes hampei[Hypothenemus hampei], Ferr. Worldwide: Asia, Africa, South and Central America, the Caribbean, Oceania. Co ee Berry Borer (Hypothenemus hampei), a Global Pest of Co ee: Perspectives from Historical and Recent Invasions, and Future Priorities Melissa A. Johnson 1,2,*, Claudia Patricia Ruiz-Diaz 3, Nicholas C. Manoukis 1 and Jose Carlos Verle Rodrigues 3 1 Daniel K. Inouye US Pacific Basin Agricultural Research Center, United States Department of A gallery is started by a single, mated female, referred to. 1984. NATURAL ENEMIESSeveral wasps (eulophyds and braconids) have been introduced from Africa to Central and South America, and elsewhere, but without noticeable impact. (http://www.mdpi.com/2075-4450/7/1/6). The first report in the American continent were in Brazil (1926). It is not uncommon for 100% of the berries to be attacked. Mean development time from egg to adult across all sites was 38.5 ± 3.46 days, while the mean time required for the completion of a full life cycle (from time of infestation to presence of mature F1 females) was 50.9 ± 3.35 days. Between 14 to 21 days grubs undergoes pupation inside tunnel. The mobile application is available from the Google Play Store and Apple iTunes. Pick all ripe berries at least every 2 weeks (more often, if practical). The CBB belongs to the genus Hypothenemus, which has more than 181 species and can be found not only in coffee but also in plants, fungi and even drawing boards and books.. Thankfully, only three of the 181+ species are known to be found in coffee plantations; Hypothenemus Hampei Ferrari, Hypothenemus Seriatus and Hypothenemus Obscurus. Other noticeable features are short club-shaped antennae, and bristles on the legs that are used for tunneling through the coffee berries. Inside the bean, the CBB develops through four major life stages: egg, larva (first and second instars), pupa, and adult (teneral and mature). The parasitoids used to control the borer beetle are Hymenoptera (wasps) native to Africa. It entered the Dominican Republic in the 1990s. Biological control methods use the natural enemies of the coffee berry borer to reduce the population. Fallen berries are particularly difficult to treat. The female beetles attack the fruits from 8 weeks past the flowering to 32 weeks. In about 8 to 10 days grubs emerges out from eggs. Adult females bore a hole in the co ee berry, where they deposit their eggs; upon hatching, larvae feed on the co ee seeds inside the berry, thus … 2015a. Coffee beans damaged by the coffee bean borer, Hypothenemus hamperi. Coffee is predicted to be severely affected by climate change. Produced with support from the Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research under project PC/2010/090: Strengthening integrated crop management research in the Pacific Islands in support of sustainable intensification of high-value crop production, implemented by the University of Queensland and the Secretariat of the Pacific Community. Nine generations per year of H. After mating inside the fruits, some of female remain in the fruits, and others go out to infect other fruits. Biological Control 37(2):141-7. Developing coffee berries are typically attacked by single mated female H. hampei from between eight weeks after flowering until harvest (>32 weeks) (Baker 1999). Pirimiphos-methyl is recommended. BAKER, J.F. Where coffee is present all year round, as occurs in Uganda, H. hampeimay exceed eight generations a year (Hargreaves, 1926). Males have short wings and do not fly; they remain in the berries for the 3 months of their lives. The life cycle in degree–days is 237.2 with a threshold temperature development of 16.5 ºC. ], A, xviii, 364], and measures that should be taken to eradicate it are indicated. Even if only a few of the beans are infested, the damage affects quality, and the beans will be difficult to market (Photo 4). The complete life cycle may take from 28 to 34 days. 12. takes place in the coffee bean; this photo shows the frass that accumulates as with stiff hairs. HYPOTHENEMUS HAMPEI (COLEOPTERA: CURCULIONIDAE: SCOLYTINAE) MANAGEMENT IN A SMALL COFFEE FARM IN COLOMBIA Luis F. Aristizábal1*, Mauricio Jiménez2, Alex E. Bustillo3 and Steven P. Arthurs1 lMiá Florida Research and Education Center, IFAS/University of Florida, Apopka, Florida, 32703, USA Maintain healthy trees using correct type and amounts of fertilizer, control of weeds, and pruning. There are about 10 females for every male. Eggs are about 0.6 mm long, and are laid in chambers chewed out of the beans, each female producing 30-50 eggs in 2-7 weeks. The lifespan for females is 35–190 days and for males 40 days. ACIAR Monograph No. Fenthion has also been de-registered by the APVMA - Australian Pesticides and Veterinary Medicines Authority. The life cycle begins when an adult female, referred to as the colonizing female, emerges from an infested berry and bores a hole into another berry, usually through an area known as the disc, which was originally the floral disc of the flower. The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari, 1867) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) presents a cryptic life cycle, which occurs all within the fruit, which makes its control a difficult task. Female CBB’s life is maximum 190 days, and male 40 days. The same plant can host three to five generations of beetles. Two days after the access, the beetle lays 35–50 eggs, which produce 13 females for each male. During the time when beetle offspring emerge from each commercially ruined berry to disperse, they are vulnerable to predation. The yellow warbler, rufous-capped warbler, and other insectivorous birds have been shown to reduce by 50% the number of coffee borer beetles in Costa Rican coffee plantations. Biological Control 37(2):141-7. Vega F, Infante F, Johnson A. By contrast, 80% mortality of adults occurs with the fungus, Beauvaria bassiana, in countries with continuous high humidity. Usually, the female drills the berry through the central disc, although it can enter through the side walls if the fruit is dry. The life cycle of Hypothenemus hampei. 163 million base pairs (Vega et al. This fact sheet is a part of the app Pacific Pests and Pathogens. , 2010 ). REVIEW ARTICLE Coffee berry borer Hypothenemus hampei (Coleoptera: Curculionidae): searching for sustainable control strategies J. Jaramillo1,2, C. Borgemeister2 * and P. Baker3 1Institute of Plant Diseases and Plant Protection, University of Hanover, Herrenha¨user Str. The main pest management strategies involve different components, including monitoring, controlled harvest, and the use of biological control agents. Increase shade (there may be more predators where shade is present, but this varies locally). It is among the most harmful pests to coffee crops across the world where coffee is cultivated. Caffeine demethylase has been shown to be responsible for caffeine breakdown in the alimentary canal of the insect (Ceja-Navarro et al. After about 2 weeks and two moults, the larvae reach maturity, develop into pupae and 4-9 days later emerge as adults. and Steinernema feltiae have been shown to infect the insect. The adults (Photos 1&2) feed and breed inside the berries, and the damage done, plus the presence of decay organisms, causes the berries to fall prematurely. The males never leave the fruit. A Panagrolaimus sp. Hypothenemus hamperi, ... 2.3 Typical Hypothenemus Life Cycle. Leave fallen berries as reservoir for parasitoids (where numbers fallen are low). Abstract. Usually, the female drills the berry through the central disc, although it can enter through the side walls if the fruit is dry. A female laid 40-60 eggs. The fertilised female flies to the ripening berries and bores into them. The main host of H. hampei is Coffea arabica, but other coffee species have been affected in some cases. In August 2010, the coffee berry borer was found in South Kona, Island of Hawai‘i, and its identity was confirmed by Dr. Natalia J. Vandenberg (Systematic Entomology Laboratory, USDA-ARS). Fumigation before entry and inspections should be mandatory. Females can lay >100 eggs in a single bean during a three-week period [8]. The entire life cycle is about 4 weeks. Corbett, GH (1933) Some preliminary observations on the coffee berry beetle borer, Rojas MG, Morales-Ramos JA, Harrington TC (1999) Association between. ICAFE. The coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampei) is the most economically important coffee pest throughout all coffee-producing countries in the world.These borers are the only known pests that feed exclusively on and live within coffee berries and are known to attack 100% of berries in a … Postal 36 Tapachula, Chiapas, México. Xyleborus cofeicola Campos Novaes, 1922 Hypothenemus coffeae (Hagedorn). Sprays are recommended when monitoring shows "hot-spots" with more than 2% infestation. We determined the thermal tolerance of the coffee berry borer , Hypothenemus hampei, the most devastating pest of coffee worldwide, and make inferences on the possible effects of climate change using climatic data from Colombia, Kenya, Tanzania, and Ethiopia. Males have short wings and do not fly; they remain in the berries for the 3 months of their lives. Ceja-Navarro JA, Vega FE, Karaoz U, Hao S, Jenkins S, Lim HC, Kosina P, Infante F, Northen TR, Brodie EL (2015) Gut microbiota mediate caffeine detoxification in the primary insect pest of coffee. 2006. As temperatures increase, female beetles lay more eggs, and disperse earlier ( Jaramillo et al. Where coffee is present all year round, as occurs in Uganda, H. hampei may exceed eight generations a year (Hargreaves, 1926). The aim is to leave leass than five ripe, over-ripe or raisin berries per tree. CHEMICAL CONTROLInsecticides are effective if applied early when the female is in the entry tunnel, but not later when berries are mature and the female has penetrated the endosperm. The insect has not yet been found on any other island. RESISTANT VARIETIES Differences exist between Coffea species and between varieties of Coffea arabica and Coffea canephora, but are probably not sufficient as a basis for developing resistant varieties. Fighting the coffee berry borer (http://marcoinkona.com/2012/04/21/save-kona-coffee-fighting-the-coffee-berry-borer/). The life cycle of Hypothenemus hampei. Further damage occurs if the beans are not properly dried before being stored. Some females lay the eggs in the same coffee plant, others colonize new ones. CBB life cycle is 24-45 days, depends on climate. The adults are small black beetles. The beetle entered Colombia during the late 1980s. The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari), can survive in residual cof-fee berries during the inter-harvest period, while new fructification only appears 2–3 monthsafterthelastharvest.Thedispersalofcolonizingfemalesisanadaptationthat enables the life cycle of the species to go ahead whenever his flight aptitude allows. Photo 3. Taxonomy, description, life cycle, distribution, and references for the coffee berry borer are provided by Wikipedia. Egg incubation period ranged 4.6-16.8 days, under temperature between 30 and 15°C. unusual life cycle of the coffee berry borer. Check with local authorities to find out if parasitoids are important; if they are, do the following: http://marcoinkona.com/2012/04/21/save-kona-coffee-fighting-the-coffee-berry-borer/. Two days after entering the fruits, one female puts 35-50 eggs which consist of 33-46 female. The complete life cycle may take from 28 to 34 days. In: Vega FE, Hofstetter RW, editors. The insect is very sensitive to desiccation, and waits for the rains to leave the fruit. Females have two larval stages and males only one. Rojas JC, Castillo A, Virgen A. The females can fly for about 30 minutes; they also swarm, perhaps using updrafts of air to achieve long-distance travel. It takes up to eight hours for adult female H. hampei to bore through a coffee berry to Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) females during the inter-harvest season of ... enables the life cycle of the species to go ahead whenever his flight aptitude allows. Sample as follows: (i) sample according to age of the trees; (ii) randomly select 30 trees for every 5000, (iii) select a branch in the moddle of a tree, containing 30-100 developing berries, (iv) examine all green berries for coffee berry borer holes, (v) count the number of green berries, (vi) go to next tree in a zig-zag pattern, (vii) calculate percentage infestation. The coffee borer beetle or coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampei) is a small beetle native to Africa. Photo 3. Photo 4. Photo 2. Research at the Centro Nacional de Investigaciones de Café (Cenicafé, Colombia) reported other insect families as predators: Anthocoridae (Hemiptera) and Cucujidae (Coleoptera)[citation needed]. Host-pest relationship of the genus Hypothenemus (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) with special reference to the coffee berry borer, H. hampei. It is recorded from Federated States of Mincronesia, Fiji (where it is one of the top ten pests), French Polyinesia, New Caledonia, Northern Mariana Islands, Papua New Guinea, and USA (Hawaii). Sampling in this way is carried out monthy. Metaparasitylenchus hypothenemi (Nematoda: Allantonematidae) is a free-living nematode parasite that infects coffee berry borers (Hypothenemus hampei), small beetles that harm coffee crops worldwide.This nematode has been shown to interfere with the parasitic activity of the coffee berry borer by increasing the mortality of its progeny. 1.5 mm long, showing its relative size to a coffee bean. An account is given of the bionomics of Stephanoderes hampei[Hypothenemus hampei], Ferr. Most of the life cycle of this univoltine species is spent within the root system of its host plant (commonly Trifolium and Medicago). Female CBB’s life is maximum 190 days, and male 40 days. Females are 1.4–1.8 mm long. Since the last review on this insect was published six years ago, many new studies have contributed to an improved insight into the biology and ecology of the beetle, and have indicated new avenues for integrated and biological control. Jaramillo J, Borgemeister C, Baker P (2006) Coffee berry borer, Vega FE, Infante F, Johnson AJ (2015) The genus. A series of experiments involving artificial infestation of coffee trees with coffee            Up to 100 beetles can be found in a single fruit. Two days after entering the fruits, one female puts 35-50 eggs which consist of 33-46 female. Pick berries as they ripen, increasing to every 2-3 weeks in "hot-spots". The dispersal of colonizing females is an adaptation that enables the life cycle of the species to go ahead whenever his flight aptitude allows. Developing coffee berries are typically attacked by single mated female H. hampei from between eight weeks after flowering until harvest (>32 weeks) (Baker 1999). 2, 30419 Hanover, Germany: 2International Centre of Insect Physiology and Ecology, PO Box 30772-00100, Nairobi, Kenya: (coffee berry borer) in Java, compiled from the literature, for the benefit of coffee planters in South India, where it was detected in June 1930 [R.A.E. The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari), can survive in residual coffee berries during the inter-harvest period, while new fructification only appears 2–3 months after the last harvest. It was not known whether C. quadricollis and Leptophloeus sp. Chemical cues used in host location by Phymastichus coffea, a parasitoid of coffee berry borer adults, Hypothenemus hampei. 4: 303-316. 24pp. The ma… The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari), can survive in residual coffee berries during the inter-harvest period, while new fructification only appears 2–3 months after the last harvest. Also, a number of border controls has been established in countries with coffee crops. Prevention is based in the careful inspection of the coffee beans before leaving the coffee farms to avoid spreading of the insects. The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari, 1867) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) presents a cryptic life cycle, which occurs all within the fruit, which makes its control a difficult task. No development occurred at 35°C and the larval stage did not develop to pupa at 15°C. Taxonomy, description, life cycle, distribution, and references for the coffee berry borer are provided by Wikipedia. 2, 30419 Hanover, Germany: 2International Centre of Insect Physiology and Ecology, PO Box 30772-00100, Nairobi, Kenya: Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) (Scolytidae: Coleoptera) and its incidence in the southern Tagalog provinces. Adult Hypothenemus hampei, about 1.5 mm long, showing its relative size to a coffee bean. Prune bushes after harvest, removing branches on which berries are too high to reach. Hypothenemus hampei Share . During laboratory observations conducted in Mexico 26±10C the development cycle of C. stephanoderis on Hypothenemus hampei in coffee took about 20 days for both males and females[4]. Xyleborus coffeivorus Van der Weele, 1910 The coffee berry borer (CBB), Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari), was detected and it became established throughout the coffee, Coffea arabica (L.), production areas of Puerto Rico. Most of the life cycle of this univoltine species is spent within the root system of its host plant (commonly Trifolium and Medicago). Stephanoderes coffeae Hagedorn, 1910 New Caledonian coffee growing and its main pest, the berry borer, are described. Coffee culture, one of the main agricultural activities in Brazil, has undergone recent negative impacts due to unfavorable climate conditions, with a subnormal rainy period and increased temperatures during the second half of 2015.The coffee berry borer Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari, 1867) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is one of the main insect pests of coffee crops worldwide. San José, Costa Rica. The maturation of the insect (from egg to adult) lasts between 24 and 45 days, varying according to the weather. 2015 [3]. In: Vega FE, Hofstetter RW, editors. In the eastern USA, H. obscurus adults emerge and disperse from overwintering sites into new clover fields for a short period in the spring. HYPOTHENEMUS HAMPEI (COLEOPTERA: CURCULIONIDAE: SCOLYTINAE) MANAGEMENT IN A SMALL COFFEE FARM IN COLOMBIA Luis F. Aristizábal1*, Mauricio Jiménez2, Alex E. Bustillo3 and Steven P. Arthurs1 lMiá Florida Research and Education Center, IFAS/University of Florida, Apopka, Florida, 32703, USA The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari), can survive in residual coffee berries during the inter-harvest period, while new fructification only appears 2–3 months after the last harvest. Even a few bored beans lower quality, and if the consignment is not dried properly the beetles will continue to breed in storage and increase the damage. For this, the effect of eight temperature regimes (15, 20, 23, … The external morphology and life cycle of Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) in Jamaica. Keywords: Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1B Cry3A Hypothenemus hampei Artificial diet Coffee berry borer (CBB), Hypothenemus hampei Ferrari (Coleop- Cry3A exhibit coleopteran specific activity (McPherson et al., tera: Scolytidae), is one of the most serious economic pests of com- 1988; Bradley et al., 1995). The dispersal of colonizing females is an adaptation that enables the life cycle of the species to go ahead whenever his flight aptitude allows. Some females lay the eggs in the same coffee plant, others colonize new ones. Johanneson, N. E. & A. Mansingh. Philippine Entomologist. Grub feeds on beans by tunnelling inside it. the larvae and adults eat the beans. Beauveria bassiana infection causes high mortality of the insect and products have been developed in Colombia and elsewhere. In the eastern USA, H. obscurus adults emerge and disperse from overwintering sites into new clover fields for a short period in the spring. The genus Hypothenemus, with emphasis on H. hampei, the coffee berry borer. Development time increased with increasing elevation and … QUARANTINEIt is important that seed coffee imported into countries yet free from the beetle is treated appropriately. The coffee berry borer Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari) is the most serious pest of the world's most valuable tropical export crop. If the endosperm is still soft it may wait in the fruit for it to become firm, or visit other berries. The lifespan for females is 35–190 days and for males 40 days. BIOLOGY AND ECOLOGY OF HYPOTHENEMUS HAMPEI. 12. The draft genome of the coffee berry borer consists of ca. Photo 1 Georg Goergen, IITA-Benin. It takes up to eight hours for adult female H. hampei to bore through a coffee berry to (Note that endosulfan previously used extensively in Central and South America is banned under the Stockholm Convention, April 2011.) The life cycle of the coffee bean borer, Hypothenemus hamperi, takes place in the coffee bean; this photo shows the frass that accumulates as the larvae and adults eat the beans. Some females remain and lay eggs in the same berry. CBB development occurs over 1–2 months depending on temperature and berry moisture [6, 7, 8]. Egg incubation period ranged 4.6-16.8 days, under temperature between 30 … Stephanoderes hampei Ferrari, 1871 The female enters the … Inprint Limited, Brisbane; and from Aristizabal LF, et al. e co ee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari), is the most devastating insect pest of co ee throughout the world. Destroy bushes in abandoned plantations, as they are sources of infestation. Linear and non-linear functions were fitted to the development data plotted against temperature, using Insect Life Cycle Modelling software (ILCYM). The coffee berry borer (CBB), Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari), was detected and it became established throughout the coffee, Coffea arabica (L.), production areas of Puerto Rico. Rojas JC, Castillo A, Virgen A. 2015 [4]. The coffee berry borer, Hypothenemus hampei (Ferrari, 1867) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) presents a cryptic life cycle, which occurs all within the fruit, which makes its control a difficult task. There are about 10 females for every male. Adult Hypothenemus hampei, about The female enters the … They have strong mandibles, and their larval phase lasts 10 to 26 days. Cut open the berry to find the female in tunnels in the endosperm (the starch deposit in the seed). It was detected in Puerto Rico in August 2007. Co ee Berry Borer (Hypothenemus hampei), a Global Pest of Co ee: Perspectives from Historical and Recent Invasions, and Future Priorities Melissa A. Johnson 1,2,*, Claudia Patricia Ruiz-Diaz 3, Nicholas C. Manoukis 1 and Jose Carlos Verle Rodrigues 3 1 Daniel K. Inouye US Pacific Basin Agricultural Research Center, United States Department of The most affected areas in the crops are the shady and moist ones. The α-AI1 inhibitor shows considerable activity toward digestive enzymes of the coffee berry borer (CBB) Hypothenemus hampei. Although they have a low impact in the beetle population, the use of biological controls allows the product to qualify as organic food. Contribute to the Repository We are seeking early adopters of the repository at the St. Augustine campus. 1995), this has not being verified experimentally (Alvarez y Cortina 2004). The adults are black, about 1.5 mm long by 0.4 mm wide, covered in short stiff hairs. IPM for coffee berry borer includes sampling/monitoring, cultural practices, use of Beauvaria bassiana, post-harvest control, and realease of parasitoids. Insecticides are useful only before the female beetle penetrates the berry. Adult coffee bean borer, Hypothenemus The life cycle begins when an adult female, referred to as the colonizing female, emerges from an infested berry and bores a hole into another berry, usually through an area known as the disc, which was originally the floral disc of the flower. Adult Hypothenemus hampei, about 1.5 mm long, showing its relative size to a coffee bean. (1) Only single families are usually found in each coffee berry. [2][3] Spanish common names of the insect include barrenador del café, gorgojo del café, and broca del café. Resistance to endosulfan, which has been banned in many countries, has been reported in New Caledonia. The maturation of the insect (from egg to adult) lasts between 24 and 45 days, varying according to the weather. Pest management through biological control can utilize predators, parasites and diseases that attack the larvae or adult beetles. AUTHOR Grahame JacksonInformation from Waterhouse DF, Norris KR (1989) Biological Control Pacific Prospects - Supplement 1. Author information: (1)El Colegio de la Frontera Sur, Apdo. During times when the crop is low or non-existent, the beetles remain inactive in dry berries or in those on the ground. (coffee berry borer) in Java, compiled from the literature, for the benefit of coffee planters in South India, where it was detected in June 1930 [R.A.E. Photo 4. Look for brown frass over the holes. Females are fertilised a few days before they leave the berries to find other berries in which to lay their eggs. Photo 1. Reports of the life expectancy of the adults are varied; males may live for 20–87 days and females for an average of 157 days (Barrera, 1994). Insects 7(1). (2016) Integrated pest management of coffee berry borer: strategies from Latin America that could be useful for coffee farmers in Hawaii. Johnson MD, Kellermann JL, Stercho AM, 2010. Even though there are reports of non-mated females giving origin to fertile eggs (Montoya y Cárdenas 1994, Muñoz 1989, Barrera et al. It has a multivoltine life cycle with overlapping developmental stages, and emergence is dictated by temperatures between 20 and 25°C (Baker et al., 1992). Temperature significantly affected the development time of all immature stages. The new insects mate inside the seed. When the insect enters, it builds galleries in the endosperm where the eggs are deposited. Full-sib mating would therefore be expected to reduce heterozygosity at a rapid rate. present in coffee beans might be feeding on H. hampei , feeding on fungi inside H. hampei galleries, or seeking a protected resting site. Photo 4 (Kaunewsbriefs.blogspot.com). Apple iOS Edition. HYPOTHENEMUS HAMPEI (COLEOPTERA: CURCULIONIDAE: SCOLYTINAE) MANAGEMENT IN A SMALL COFFEE FARM IN COLOMBIA L UIS F. A RISTIZÁBAL 1,*, M AURICIO J IMÉNEZ 2, A LEX E. B USTILLO 3 AND S TEVEN P. A RTHURS 1 1 Mid Florida Research and Education Center, IFAS/University of Florida, Apopka, Florida, 32703, USA 2 In laboratory experiments, Heterorhabditis sp. Several factors associated with the life cycle of H. hampei would be expected to reduce nucleotide variation. Many beetles occur in a single berry, up to 100 (Photo 3). Look for holes in beans by rubbing them between the hands to remove the parchment (a skin over the seed). During laboratory observations conducted in Mexico 26±10C the development cycle of C. stephanoderis on Hypothenemus hampei in coffee took about 20 days for both males and females[4]. It was discovered in Kona (Big Island), Hawaii in August 2010.[5]. CBB females tunnel through the fruit until they reach the endosperm, where they oviposit [16,19]. BARRERA and A. RIVAS Centro de Investigaciones Ecologicas del Sureste, Apartado 36, Tapachula, Chiapas, 30700 Mexico Summary 1. [4] In the 1970s, it affected Guatemala and Mexico. Ants, predatory beetles and nematodes also occur, but none has sufficient potential to control Hypothenemus populations.