Flocculation is synonymous with agglomeration and coagulation / coalescence. Because of this, the sedimentation step is usually preceded by a chemical process known as coagulation. 1 CE 370 Coagulation and Flocculation Part 2 Rapid Mixing and Flocculation ¾Rapid mixing is used to: −Disperse chemicals uniformly throughout the mixing basin −Allow adequate contact between the coagulant and particles −Microflocs are produced ¾Flocculation is … Therefore, the large clumps or the large precipitate could be easily separated and removed from the medium. Coagulation, Flocculation and Clarification of Drinking Water Terry L. Engelhardt Application Development Manager Drinking Water Hach Company Photo by author The intent of this paper is to provide cursory information about coagulation, flocculation and clarification. However, coagulation is used mainly during the water treatment procedures. Flocculation involves the formation of flocs. In an international report published in 1998, it was found that coagulation and sedimentation can only remove between 27 and 84 percent of viruses and between … 2. Flocculation is synonymous with agglomeration and coagulation / coalescence. Coagulation involves the use of a coagulant which has the potential to de-stabilize the previously stabilized charged particles in the suspension. Examples are aluminum sulfate, aluminum chloride, alum and ferric sulfate. in Molecular and Applied Microbiology, and PhD in Applied Microbiology. 2.’Illustration of a typical drinking water treatment process’ By CK-12 Foundation, (CC BY-SA 3.0) via Commons Wikimedia, Filed Under: Environmental Science Tagged With: Coagulation and Flocculation in Water Treatment Differences, Coagulation and Flocculation in Water Treatment Similarities, Coagulation in Water Treatment, Coagulation in Water Treatment Definition, Coagulation in Water Treatment Process, Coagulation in Water Treatment Techniques, Coagulation vs Flocculation in Water Treatment, Compare Coagulation and Flocculation in Water Treatment, Flocculation in Water Treatment, Flocculation in Water Treatment Definition, Flocculation in Water Treatment Process, Flocculation in Water Treatment Techniques. What is meant by coagulation and flocculation? Coagulation is a chemical process and flocculation is a physical process, In coagulation, the process involves the utilization of a coagulant that has the ability to destabilize the charged particles which are not settleable whilst flocculation involves a similar destabilization process that is achieved through physical mixing and by adding organic polymers. Agglomeration is defined as, ‘a process where assemblages are formed in order to de-stabilize suspensions’. Flocculation is synonymous with agglomeration and coagulation / coalescence. This is an important step in many different biochemical processes. The precipitation process can generate very fine particles that are held in suspension by electrostatic surface charges. The floc is subsequently removed in most cases by sedimentation. Coagulation and flocculation are essential processes in various disciplines. One of the commonest coagulants used is alum (Al2(SO4)3.14H2O). You can download PDF version of this article and use it for offline purposes as per citation note. Coagulation is a chemical process and flocculation is a physical process, In coagulation, the process involves the utilization of a coagulant that has the ability to destabilize the charged particles which are not settleable whilst flocculation involves a similar destabilization process that is achieved through physical mixing and by adding organic polymers. Flocculant such as an organic polymer that involves in bridging and strengthening the flocs is added. Therefore, flocculation is a technique which induces the agglomeration of particles. Large, heavy particles settle out readily, but smaller and lighter particles settle very slowly or in some cases do not settle at all. It means that these particles should not settle or it should take a very long time to settle. Degree in Plant Science, M.Sc. These particles form clumps with the help of a coagulant. What is a Coagulation      – Definition, Application, 3. clump together and settle out of the water, unless proper coagulation and flocculation is used. In respects to the chemistry of this procedure, adding a coagulant destabilizes the particle’s charges. These flocculates are easily disrupted, being held together only by a force analogous to the surface tension of a liquid. While coagulation can remove particles and some dissolved matter, the water may still contain pathogens. This causes the clumping of particles. This article provides an overview of the processes and looks at the latest thinking. Melani Maria has a BSc (Hons) degree in Chemistry and doing her Masters, specializing in Perfumery and Business. Coagulation means to curdle; it basically refers to a chemical process in which the destabilization of non-settleable particles takes place. Meanwhile, flocculation is a mixing technique that promotes agglomeration and assists in the settling of particles. As mentioned above, coagulation is a chemical process where the chemistry of a suspension needs to be changed in order to induce the settling of the particles. Flocculation:  Flocculation is a physical process. In flocculation one can make a distinction between perikinetic and Flocculation is used in water treatment plants along with coagulation techniques in order to remove suspended particles in water. This step is called flocculation. Coagulation does not involve physical mixing process. 3. In an international report published in 1998, it was found that coagulation and sedimentation can only remove between 27 and 84 percent of viruses and between … Main Difference – Flocculation vs Precipitation. Figure 02: Drinking Water Purification Process. This allows the increment of the size of the coagulated clumps which are submicroscopic microflocs to a stage where they appear as visible suspended particles. In flocculation one can make a distinction between perikinetic and Material for this article was largely taken from reference 1. During the flocculation procedure, the solution which is coagulated already is mixed gently. These particles form clumps with the help of a coagulant. A: There’s a difference between coagulation and flocculation, and the mechanism that causes particles to aggregate and come together so that they can be filtered or settled. In potable water treatment, clarification of water using coagulating agents has been practiced from ancient times. Coagulation and flocculation are two processes commonly used in water treatment in order to get rid of unwanted suspended material in water. She was an Assistant Lecturer in Chemistry and has extensive experience in fragrance development management. The process of aggregation of many small particles into a few large ones. Coagulation involves the use of a coagulant which has the potential to de-stabilize the previously stabilized charged particles in the suspension. Flocculation: The process of agglomeration of the destabilized particles to such a size that separation by sedimentation and filtration is possible. Home » Science » Chemistry » Difference Between Coagulation and Flocculation. Coagulation is an important step in water treatment and it involves in the addition of a coagulant to enhance the clotting of suspended particles in water. This allows the bridging and strengthening the floc which increases the weight of floc while also increasing the rate of settling. All rights reserved. These are also referred to as coagulant aids. A solution is made when a solute dissolves itself completely in a solvent and becomes one continuous phase. After coagulation the destabilized particles can collide, aggregate so flocs can be formed. The slow mixing procedure of flocculation allows the contact of microflocs with each other which induces inter-microfloc collisions. This is the key difference between coagulation and flocculation. There are three steps: 1. Summary. This knowledge will provide a basis for understanding the needs of the Restoration of water quality is assured during water treatment. It also increase the weight of the flocs and increases the rate of settling. 1 CE 370 Coagulation and Flocculation Part 2 Rapid Mixing and Flocculation ¾Rapid mixing is used to: −Disperse chemicals uniformly throughout the mixing basin −Allow adequate contact between the coagulant and particles −Microflocs are produced ¾Flocculation is … These anti-coagulants are often used to ease blood clots to prevent artery blockage. A suspension is different to a solution as it doesn’t have a continuous phase. (14868618507)’ By USEPA Environmental-Protection-Agency . Dr.Samanthi Udayangani holds a B.Sc. As early as 2000 BC the Egyptians used almonds smeared around vessels to clarify river water. During coagulation, the coagulant (alum) are added to destabilize the surface charge of particles in order to promote the formation of microflocs during the collision. “Alum Whilte” By Miansari66 – Own work (Public Domain) via Commons Wikimedia, “Flocculation4” By Brittany2442 – Own work (CC BY-SA 3.0) via Commons Wikimedia. On the other hand, during flocculation, the solution is mixed gently, so that the small clumps formed during coagulation, gather together and form larger clumps. Furthermore, the speed of mixing, the time of mixing etc. Coagulation and flocculation are used to separate the suspended solids portion from the water. Flocculation: Physical processes such as mixing is used as a technique in flocculation. (Public Domain) via Commons Wikimedia  The conventional treatment scheme consists of coagulation-flocculation-settling followed by filtration. What is the difference between Coagulation and Flocculation. This results in the formation of large masses of flocs which initially appear as a cloud and then converted into a precipitate. Coagulation is the neutralization of the electronic charge on suspended particles. In the chemical aspect, it could be explained as a process by which destabilizes the charges of particles which are not settling down. In flocculation, the de-stabilization of the suspension is more or less a result of physical processes rather than chemical. Suspended particles vary in source, charge, particle size, shape, and density. This is then followed by sedimentation (see Sedimentation Chapter). This process is assisted by the addition of organic polymers that possess high molecular weight. These collisions induce the formation of bonds between microflocs and results in the formation of larger particles which are visible. Flocculation is completed once the floc reaches its optimum strength and size. There are three steps: 1. Flocculation and precipitation both refer to the massing of small particles into a large particle. Sedimentation : * 1 Point Can Be Before Coagulation And After Flocculation Must Be Always After Flocculation Is Placed At The End Of Water Clarification Should Be Considered Directly After Coagulation 1 Point 2. The effects of a coagulant can be reversed by the use of an anti-coagulant. These large clumps easily settle down and thus can be separated. Coagulation and flocculation are essential processes in various disciplines. In potable water treatment, clarification of water using coagulating agents has been practiced from ancient times. Whereas in flocculation, the de-stabilization is brought about by physical techniques such as mixing of the solution, and also sometimes by the addition of polymers. Coagulation, in simple terms, is referred to as curdling or clotting. What is a Flocculation     – Definition, Application, 4. Coagulation could be achieved simply by adding a coagulant to the medium. Material for this article was largely taken from reference1.Coagulation and flocculation are essential processes in various disciplines. Particles in water, such as clay, usually have a negative charge. Coagulation and Flocculation LOKESH SAINI M.Tech-I´st Semester Student ID 2015PCE5271 3/31/2016 1 2. As early as 2000 BC the Egyptians used alm… But there are differences between the two terms. 1. This article provides an overview of the processes and looks at the latest thinking. Coagulants such as inorganic salts of aluminum or iron that neutralize the suspended particles are added during coagulation. Figure 01: Coagulation in Water Treatment. Large, heavy particles settle out readily, but smaller and lighter particles settle very slowly or in some cases do not settle at all. These particles form clumps with the help of a coagulant. Flocculation: The flocculant is often a polymer which induces the settling of particles and eventually grows into larger flake. For water treatment, coagulation is generally followed by flocculation. But these particles are not visible to the naked eye. Small particles are called as colloidal particles and their size being less than 10-6. During Flocculation, the solution is mixed gently, providing time and energy so the clumps will gather together and form larger clumps. On the other hand, flocculation means to form flocs. This step is followed by flocculation. This is mainly achieved through the physical and mechanical process that is involved with the already coagulated clumps to join together. Overview and Key Difference The addition of organic polymers results in different aspects. This usually takes an hour depending on the size of the medium. Basically, coagulation is a process of addition of coagulant to destabilize a stabilized charged particle. Flocculation is an important step in water treatment procedures which is always followed by coagulation step. Coagulation is a process of making colloidal matter dispersed/suspended in a liquid to join in a coherent mass. The most common way is to add a flocculant to the suspension, where the flocculant is generally a polymer. While coagulation can remove particles and some dissolved matter, the water may still contain pathogens. Water supply system - Water supply system - Coagulation and flocculation: Suspended particles cannot be removed completely by plain settling. Groundwater and surface water contain both dissolved and suspended particles. Once the coagulants are added and the charges of the particles are neutralized, it allows the particles to interact with each other and stick together. Coagulation: Coagulation is a chemical process. 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Once flocculation is completed, the water is eligible to undergo separation processes. Coagulation and flocculation steps are important aspects in the context of water treatment since it allows the separation of suspended particles present in water effectively. After coagulation the destabilized particles can collide, aggregate so flocs can be formed. Therefore it requires the addition of a coagulant. Coagulation and flocculation provide the water treat-ment process by which finely divided suspended and colloidal matter in the water is made to agglomerate and form flocs. November 30, 2012 by admin 2 Comments. In contrast, in flocculation, the de-stabilization is brought about by physical techniques such as mixing of the solution, and also sometimes by the addition of polymers. The key difference between coagulation and flocculation in water treatment is that the coagulation is a chemical process while flocculation is a physical process. Water supply system - Water supply system - Coagulation and flocculation: Suspended particles cannot be removed completely by plain settling. Coagulation and flocculation are an essential part of drinking water treatment as well as wastewater treatment. Treatment of water is a very sensitive and important process. When mixing continues, the floc size gradually increases. 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Continue Reading. Coagulation is a process used to neutralise charges and form a gelatinous mass to trap (or bridge) particles thus forming a mass large enough to settle or be trapped in the filter. 30-08-2015 4B.TECH BIOTECHNOLOGY It requires the presence of both physical and chemical processes. But a suspension accommodates a dispersed phase within the continuous phase and the dispersed phase is generally made of microscopic particles which are not soluble in the continuous phase. What is a Colloidal Suspension     – Definition, Properties, Process, 2. What is the difference between flocculation and Deflocculation? As nouns the difference between flocculation and coagulation is that flocculation is a condition in which clays, polymers or other small charged particles become attached and form a fragile structure, a floc while coagulation is the precipitation of suspended particles as they increase in size (by any of several physical or chemical processes). In industrial processes, flocculation may be a Coagulation is a chemical process and flocculation is a physical process, In coagulation, the process involves the utilization of a coagulant that has the ability to destabilize the charged particles which are not settleable whilst flocculation involves a similar destabilization process that is achieved through physical mixing and by adding organic polymers. Coagulation and flocculation are an essential part of drinking water treatment as well as wastewater treatment. 5. Coagulation and flocculation occurs in successive steps, allowing particle collision and growth of floc. Coagulation is an important phenomenon in the clotting of blood. 3/31/2016 2 Why coagulation and flocculation? As nouns the difference between aggregation and flocculation is that aggregation is the act of collecting together (aggregating) while flocculation is a condition in which clays, polymers or other small charged particles become attached and … FLOCCULATION • Process where colloids come out of suspension in the form of floc or flake • Due to : 1.the addition of a clarifying agent 2.spontaneously • Occur in successive steps intended to overcome the forces • Stabilizes the suspended particles, allowing particle collision and growth of floc. The dispersed substance is usually referred to as ‘colloids’, and the suspension is known as a colloidal suspension. Similarities Between Coagulation and Flocculation in Water Treatment This is the difference between coagulation and flocculation. Because of this, the sedimentation step is usually preceded by a chemical process known as coagulation. Coagulation and Flocculation. This is the key difference between coagulation and flocculation. This step is called flocculation. Since water treatment is a very sensitive and important process it requires the presence of both physical and chemical processes. Coagulation and Flocculation Coagulation and flocculationconsist of adding a floc-forming chemical reagent to a water to enmesh or combine with nonsettleable colloidal solids and slow-settling suspended solids to produce a rapid-settling floc. Coagulation and flocculation process in water treatment. 4. Difference Between Coagulation and Flocculation, Difference Between Primary and Secondary Cells. 1. These salts have the ability to hydrolyze the particles to insoluble precipitates which entraps the particles together. can influence the efficiency of the flocculation process. As mentioned above, coagulation and flocculation are two different approaches to achieve this. Available here Suspended particles vary in source, charge, particle size, shape, and density. Aggregation is a see also of flocculation. 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