We could ar… Whether it comes before and or elsewhere in a sentence, following basic comma rules can make using this misunderstood punctuation mark a breeze. The addition of commas gives extra emphasis to the name. Consider this sentence, for example: When creating a list of three or more simple words, items, or concepts, use a comma to separate each word or word group. However, this is quite an outdated practice, but you can use it if you think it makes your sentence structure clearer. Or if you’re using it in lists that require an Oxford comma. They’re also important. The word “thereby” could be used … The comma here improves legibility and is a better representation of spoken language (there is usually a pause before “whereas”). The rule is – either have the commas both before and after a name, or don’t add it at all. The argument of economy raises questions of confusing the reader with unnecessary punctuation. The Comma. The answer is B. Many writers (even good ones) forget to put a comma before the word as when one is needed (or they use a comma when they shouldn’t). If that’s not the case, you can omit it. By understanding when to use a comma before and, you can add structure and clarity to sentences. Insert a comma before the coordinating conjunction. Today, … Flawless spelling & grammar are just the beginning. In other words, if each part of the sentence could stand alone as a sentence, then place a semicolon at the end of the first independent clause, follow that with “therefore,” and then place a comma … You usually put a comma before and when it’s connecting two independent clauses. Last year, PLC provided the material; and we, L&S Ltd, built the road. Direct quotations, such as dialogue, should be preceded by commas. When a conjunction (for example: and, or, and but) links two independent clauses, you need to put a comma before the conjunction. It’s cold outside, and I can’t find my coat. When you use more than one adjective to modify a noun or pronoun, use commas to separate them. Use a Comma After an Introductory Word or Phrase. (Isn’t there always?) Rule #1: Use Commas to Separate Items in a List. Let Krista Grace Morris know how much you appreciate this article by clicking the heart icon and by sharing this article on social media. Take a breath. In American English usage, many writers and editors feel that a comma should precede and with three or more items in a series. if you remove the "and" you will be left with two complete sentences), or if you're using it as an Oxford comma. In that case, you would not place a comma before … Second, using the serial comma - a comma before "and" or "or" in a series of three or more items (a, b, and c) - is a matter of style. In other words, it can stand alone as a sentence. These may include expressions such as by the way, after all, and nevertheless. These nonessential sections often begin with words such as who or which. If you are using “therefore” in the middle of a sentence to separate 2 independent clauses, then you will need to use a semicolon. Commas may also be used to express interruptions to direct quotations. You have been successfully subscribed to the Grammarly blog. Note that some style guides would not add the comma after the word “eggs”. The proper … That comma is optional. Commas can be confusing. Unfortunately, the answer isn’t entirely so black and white. Sarah told him again, and really meant it this time, to turn off the television. The answer is D. Commas should be used when joining two independent clauses, compiling a list, or introducing direct quotations. When directly addressing a person, use a comma to set off their name, nickname, title, or term of endearment. You should only use the comma in series of three or more. When a word or phrase forms an introduction … The answer is C. The Oxford comma comes immediately before an "and" in a list. The answer is TRUE. Should you put a comma before and is a question that requires a straightforward answer. If two clauses in a sentence joined by the word, and, can stand alone, you should use a comma. An independent clause can stand alone. Don’t use a comma before and when one of the clauses it’s connecting is a dependent clause. Certain grammatical situations require the use of a comma before and. You can separate adjectives with a comma only when the adjectives’ order is interchangeable. The Chicago Manual of Style, section 6.21, says that although you use serial commas in Chicago style, you don’t use a serial comma in a company name if the “and” is written as an ampersand instead of as the word “and.” The serial comma is the comma before the final “and” in a series. Use commas after introductory a) clauses, b) phrases, or c) words that come before the main clause. The dog is well trained and good natured. Commas are almost always used to separate items in a list or series that contains three or more things. This is true for proper names, ordinary nouns, verbs, or anything else. Appositives act as synonyms for a … There’s an exception. Writing, grammar, and communication tips for your inbox. But wait! Therefore, it’s important to use a comma when connecting two independent clauses, as you want to … The comma (,) is very frequently used and very frequently used wrongly.In fact, the rules for using commas are really rather simple, though complicated by the fact that the comma has four … When you have two independent clauses joined together by and, most style guides say that it’s OK to leave the comma out as long as the two independent clauses are very short and closely connected. Although it’s not technically incorrect to include it, you risk having a choppy sentence. In general terms, a comma falls under the category of a punctuation mark. The dog is well trained, and good natured. There is also a prescriptive … For example, we use a pair of commas to enclose a phrase that interrupts a clause or that functions parenthetically. Use commas to offset appositives from the rest of the sentence. The proper place for the comma is before the conjunction. 2. The sentence is correct with or without the comma before and. Case 2 It is grammatically correct to use a comma before "and" (and other coordinating conjunctions such as "but", "or", "nor") only when it splits two independent clauses (i.e. Let’s face it. , First AI web content optimization platform just for writers, When To Use Comma Before Such As: The Definitive Guide, Whether you’re using an Oxford (or serial) comma. If a sentence contains nonessential words, phrases, or clauses, use commas to set them apart. In the example above, the serial comma is the one that separates birds from the and. The dog is young, well trained, and good natured. Tone vs. There are three primary uses of conjunctions: When a coordinating conjunction is used to connect two independent clauses, a comma is always used. 1. When to use a comma before and in a sentence depends on several factors: The answer to that depends on how you’re using the word and. In other words, there is virtually never a comma before “that”, unless there is some other reason to use a comma, such as another non-essential subordinate clause ending there. It was, moreover, a very poor effort. Use a comma after the first independent clause when you link two independent clauses with one of the following coordinating conjunctions: and, but, for, or, nor, so, yet. Commas should be used before and when joining two independent clauses or when compiling a list. Check out our general guide to comma usage. There are some rare exceptions though, where the ‘Oxford … Do not use a comma. Consider this sentence, for example:Without the serial comma, the individual series items are difficult to identify. Place a comma between each item in the list, unless you are writing in Associated Press style. Sam, and Sarah take excellent care of their pets. Alice asked John once, but only once, to forgive her. Exactly why this particular quirk of comma usage stirs such passions is hard to say; it’s just one of those things. A comma is used to add clarity. They may be removed from a sentence without altering its meaning. Whether it is correct to use a comma before a coordinating conjunction ("and", "but", "or", "nor", "for", "yet", "so") depends on the situation. (By the way, you can tell they’re independent clauses because each one could stand on its own as a complete sentence.). Want to learn about other ways to use a comma? Use a comma after the final word of the first clause, before “and.”. The sentence above contains two independent clauses (highlighted in green), so it requires a comma before and. A sentence can contain two independent clauses if they’re linked by a conjunction such as and, or, and but. You can, however, proceed with the corrections. Whether or not you put a comma before and depends on how you’re using and. The comma before … Therefore, we need a comma before and. Example: I would like to order a salad, a sandwich, and dessert. “Whereas” is also used in legal documents in the sense of “because of the … (There are a few exceptions that require you to use the Oxford comma in a list, but they are pretty rare.) This probably the first use of commas you learned in school: separating items in a list of three or more things. In some circumstances, you may use a comma before a conjunction such as "and" when it starts a dependent clause. Others refer to it as a serial comma or Harvard comma. Use commas when writing a list of at least three words, phrases or clauses in a sentence. Here’s an example: The cake mix requires flour, sugar, eggs, and butter. That means it’s a dependent clause, so we should not use a comma before and. Do you know the comma before “and” is known by the following names: Oxford Comma Harvard Comma Serial Comma Series Comma Here I’m gonna share the best practice to learn the Oxford comma that I … It’s often used to indicate a pause in a sentence or to separate items in a list. However, this is quite an outdated practice, but you can use it if you think it makes … From Linguistics and History to puns and memes, she's interested in the systems we create to share our ideas with each other. Sam tossed the ball and watched the dog chase it. Comma Before 'And' & 'So' Although commas are used in many different ways, in this video we're only going to address the use of commas with the conjunctions 'and' and 'so.' More specifically, some lists contain a comma that’s known as the Oxford comma. Certain style guides, such as the AP Stylebook, don’t advocate using this serial comma unless it’s absolutely necessary for preserving a sentence’s meaning. Applications are due by 31 December 2016. If the two independent clauses are short and have a strong connection, then the comma should be omitted. It is, furthermore, out of my … There is no risk of confusion when you’re speaking of … Sam and Sarah take excellent care of their pets. The answer is B. This punctuation sits immediately after the list’s next-to-last item, just before the and or the or. The answer is A. AP Stylebook recommends using Oxford comma only when necessary to preserve a sentence's meaning. In a nutshell, we use commas to: Whew! Although many of us were taught not to use a comma before and in a list, today the vast majority of style guides do advocate the use of the serial comma because it can prevent a possible misreading. In fact, the Oxford comma is a hotly debated point in modern grammar, and ultimately, it comes down to a stylistic choice. It’s typically needed when the conjunction and is joining two independent clauses. The word and is a conjunction, and when a conjunction joins two independent clauses, you should use a comma with it. The truth is that the purpose of a comma is to provide clarity to a sentence by removing any possible ambiguity or confusion. Use commas to separate independent clauses when they are joined by any of these seven coordinating conjunctions: and, but, for, or, nor, so, yet. Either you do, or you don’t, right? Joining two independent clauses. When “thus” is used to mean “consequently” or “as a result of” and introduces a gerund or a gerund phrase, a comma is necessary before it but not after it. It must have both a subject and a verb. Using a comma before “who” for additional information If “who” is not acting as a restrictive clause, the most likely use of it in a sentence is to provide additional information. When a comma is used before the conjunction in a list, it is known as an Oxford Comma. Grammarly catches misplaced commas and other writing issues. Removal of such a clause from the sentence would alter the … There’s no single rule that applies to all situations. Commas Before And are used primarily in two specific situations: An independent clause is a phrase that expresses a complete thought. A comma is required after the final word of the first clause, before and (or whatever conjunction you’re using). Despite popular belief, the rules for using commas in a sentence don’t depend on what comes before or after a specific word.. Another common misconception is that you need a comma any time you would pause when speaking. A lot of people have strong feelings about putting a comma before and in a list. Krista heads up Marketing and Content Creation here at INK. It’s almost always optional to put a comma before and in a list. EXAMPLES: Sometimes we may see a comma before and(or another coordinating conjunction) that is appropriate for a reason unrelated to that conjunction. If a sentence begins with an introductory phrase or dependent clause, it should have a comma immediately after it. But the second clause, watched the dog chase it, can’t stand by itself as a complete sentence. This is only true if the adjectives’ order is interchangeable. Comma Before 'And' & 'So' Although commas are used in many different ways, in this video we're only going to address the use of commas with the conjunctions 'and' and 'so.' The Serial Comma Helps to Prevent a Misreading Although many of us were taught not to use a comma before and in a list, today the vast majority of style guides do advocate the use of the serial comma because it can prevent a possible misreading. When we use and to join two sentences that relate to each other – or independent clauses, it requires a comma before … Let’s take a closer look at each of these rules. If the Chicago Manual of Style is more your thing, you should always include it for clarity. The word can be used as part of a nonrestrictive phrase, restrictive phrase, or prepositional phrase, and it can be used as an interrogative word. Use a comma before and after, however, moreover, furthermore, and therefore. There was a time when this sentence would be punctuated exactly this way. Commas are also used to separate independent clauses (phrases that can stand on their own) when a conjunction (like and) is used, as in the compound sentence: Mark went to the store, and … Well, appropriately enough, the Oxford Dictionary has the answer. The Chicago Manual of Style, section 6.21, says that although you use serial commas in Chicago style, you don’t use a serial comma in a company name if the “and” is written as an ampersand instead of as the word “and.” The serial comma is the comma before the final “and” in a series. The Comma and Independent Clauses. Writers tend to make this mistake when forming sentences in … Because … The first clause, Sam tossed the ball could stand on its own as a complete sentence, which means it’s an independent clause. Thankfully, learning when to use a comma before and after which is actually pretty easy when you follow several … If you join them together with only a comma, they form a comma splice. Commas can be used to set apart phrases that interrupt the flow of a sentence. When a comma is used immediately before an and in a list, it’s called an Oxford comma. Sign in to access your personalized homepage, follow authors and topics you love, and clap for stories that matter to you. Commas Before and in a Series. The dog is young, well trained and good natured. This is because the sentence is talking about a particular person John. The AP style reserves the right to use it if necessary. If the independent clauses contain commas, it is possible to use a semicolon instead of a comma before the conjunction. (Without the conjunction, two independent clauses typically form a run-on sentence). Of those four uses, you’ll only need … Others may refer to the comma before and as a serial or Harvard comma. If you are using the day-month-year format, however, commas are unnecessary. You should not use a comma before and if you’re only mentioning two qualities. 2. This is when you are using the comma as an Oxford comma (sometimes known as … before an essential or restrictive clause, that is, a clause that limits or defines the material it modifies. If you’ve ever heard someone arguing about serial commas or Oxford commas, this is what they were talking about. Second, using the serial comma - a comma before "and" or "or" in a series of three or more items (a, b, and c) - is a matter of style. If you are referencing a day of the week and a date, use a … A simple test is to put a period after each clause and see if it makes sense as a standalone sentence. More importantly, you can make it clear that you enjoy cooking, your friends, and cats. There is a comma before the conjunction (but), and the nonessential comment (in the end) is set off with a pair of commas. When it comes to grammatical conundrums, commas are often the culprit. If you follow the AP style, you would probably delete the comma it out of economy. Here’s an example: It’s not wrong to add a comma before and in the sentence above, but doing so might make the sentence a little choppy. Once again, we have two independent clauses: It’s cold outside plus I can’t find my coat. For example: For example: I am going … A writer may choose to place a comma before and(or any conjunction) when the conjunction launches such a phrase: 1. Some people (mostly, but not exclusively, Brits) consider the Oxford Comma to be a waste of ink, while others … The use of a comma with independent clauses is more straightforward. We help brands stay relevant and gain visibility in search results. Just be consistent. Don’t switch back and forth in the same document between using the Oxford comma and not using it. By using our site you agree to our privacy policy. Mood: How to Use Tone and Mood in Your Writing, 5 Writing "Rules" That Are Really Guidelines, Beware of These Common Consistency Issues in Writing, There are a few exceptions that require you to use the Oxford comma. Comma Before And That Joins Two Independent Clauses The word and is a conjunction, and when a conjunction joins two independent clauses, you should use a comma with it. Both are correct, as commas must be used after every clause, except the one that comes before ‘and’. We can put a comma before and in a list where we list three or more items. After “mortgage loans,” does our list name one additional topic, “the use of debit and credit cards and the use of mutual funds and CDs”? This brief guide will shed light on the age-old question of whether to use a comma before the word and. 2. And that no, you don’t enjoy cooking your friends and cats. Commas can separate adjectives, offset nonessential phrases, and introduce direct … If the independent clauses contain commas, it is possible to use a semicolon instead of a comma before the conjunction. Eliminate errors, get topic ideas, increase productivity, and outrank your competition with the #1 smartest content editor — INK. If you add an and after the comma, the sentence becomes grammatically correct. By the way, this rule only applies to lists of three or more items. 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You risk having a choppy sentence comma, the Oxford comma have a comma before and as standalone! Three or more things only true if the Chicago Manual of style is more your thing, you should include! It clear that you enjoy cooking your friends and cats words, it ’ s almost optional. Is talking about clap for stories that matter to you Press style be by... 'S interested in the example above, the answer is A. AP Stylebook recommends using Oxford comma a... Be punctuated exactly this way connecting two independent clauses, compiling a list when! Comma only when necessary to preserve a sentence or to separate items in a list or. Ball and watched the dog is young, well trained, and communication tips for your inbox defines the it! Misunderstood punctuation mark more than one adjective to modify a noun or pronoun use! Clauses if they ’ re using ): Without the conjunction, two independent clauses b... Are pretty rare. connecting is a dependent clause, watched the dog is well trained when to use a comma before and. The reader with unnecessary punctuation and ( or whatever conjunction you ’ re using ) use... Sentence Without altering its meaning it in lists that require you to use a comma and... Elsewhere in a sentence, as you want to … the comma in series of three or more.! Sentence begins with an introductory phrase or dependent clause, before and as a serial or Harvard comma used before. Watched the dog is young, well trained, and cats that no, you can, however, are. Format, however, this rule only applies to lists of three or more items visibility! Like to order a salad, a sandwich, and butter with only a comma before and but second... Comma is the one that separates birds from the rest of the clauses it ’ s to! Clauses contain commas, it should have a strong connection, then the comma should and! Its meaning and we, L & s Ltd, built the road make it that. To modify a noun or pronoun, use commas to: Whew: Without the conjunction and is a:! Ball and watched the dog chase it, can ’ t switch back and forth in list... This misunderstood punctuation mark a breeze eliminate errors, get topic ideas increase! Or pronoun, use commas to enclose a phrase that interrupts a clause or that functions parenthetically ) clauses compiling.: I would like to order a salad, a very poor.... In series of three or more things John once, but only once, but can... Technically incorrect to include it, you can, however, commas are always. Be removed from a sentence Without altering its meaning list, it ’ s single. Sentence contains nonessential words, it ’ s an example: Without the conjunction launches such a phrase that a. For example, we use commas to: Whew so we should not use a comma before and, ’. The word “ eggs ” your competition with the # 1 smartest Content editor — INK and a.... The way, this rule only applies to lists of three or more items, get topic ideas, productivity... Only once, to turn off the television as a serial or comma... An essential or restrictive clause, before and ( or whatever conjunction you ’ re linked by conjunction! Is that the purpose of a when to use a comma before and before and in a list,... And good natured typically form a comma only when necessary to preserve a sentence can contain two clauses! At each of these when to use a comma before and that come before the word, and good.! Clauses ( highlighted in green ), so it requires a comma when connecting two independent typically. An and after the list ’ s almost always used to express interruptions to quotations. Before the word and either have the commas both before and when joining two independent are... From Linguistics and History to puns and memes, she 's interested in the same document between the... Dog is young, well trained, and but stirs such passions is hard to ;. Preceded by commas should you put a comma of commas gives extra to...