4:25). And when it was evening, he came with the twelve. The elders will serve it to you. Mark 14 beginning at verse 12. We are to confess our sins and we’re to look at the bread and say, “He’s with us. The clue, he contends, rest in the mysterious fourth cup that culminates the Jewish Passover meal. The third stage of my discovery process was reached when the answer to that question seemed to become more evident by my focusing on Jesus’ prayer in the Garden of Gethsemane. It is significant that Jesus in the Gospels uses the word “covenant” on only one occasion, when he institutes the Eucharist during the Passover celebration in the upper room: “And he took a cup, and when he had given thanks [eucharistesas] he gave it to them, and they all drank of it. . Second, only John mentions that Jesus was stripped of a seamless linen tunic (19:23-24). And as Ed so beautifully expounded for us in those two sermons on union with Christ, when we come to this table in a minute, you are saying, “I am His. 2:18-20). He stated his intention not to drink wine again until he came into the glory of his Kingdom. Let me try to put it as clearly as I can. As we have seen, he refused some on one occasion, right before being nailed to the cross (Mark 15:23). 13:15). It all started with a Sunday morning service at the local Evangelical church which my wife and I attended during our last year at seminary. By explaining the significance of the drinking of the fourth and final cup in the Old Testament Passover meal ceremony, Dr. Hahn draws a symbolic parallel to Christ's death on the Cross. And as Ed has reminded us, one of the things the Gospel will do is make us recognize that we are to see ourselves as Christians in this world as hosts, not guests. That’s what we deserve. To my amazement, he candidly admitted he didn’t have a satisfying answer to his own question. Note how Jesus’ resolution not to drink “the fruit of the vine” seems to reappear in the scene at Golgotha right before he is crucified: “And they offered him wine mingled with myrrh; but he did not take it” (Mark 15:23). We are dead in Him; we have been raised to newness of life in His resurrection. And then the bitter herbs to remind them of the bitterness of slavery. Dr. Brant Pitre introduces his set, The Fourth Cup and the New Passover. February 19, 2017. And he has this very poignant story about finding an old photograph in her things when he was cleaning them out after she died. Rooted in Scripture and ingrained with lively history, The Fourth Cup delivers a fascinating view of the bridges that span old and new covenants, and celebrates the importance of the Jewish faith in understanding more fully Christ’s life, death, and resurrection. And it’s important when we begin this whole description of the Passover to understand that Mark is very intentional in telling us when these things took place. We’re going to drink a different fourth cup tonight. Then we read the tragic words in verse 18, “Truly I say to you, one of you will betray me, one who is eating with me.” All of them betrayed Him eventually, didn’t they? I’m going home in a few weeks back to South Carolina, and to this day, when I walk through the front door of the house where I grew up, a wall of memories hits me when I smell that house because it smells exactly the same way it did when I was Garner’s age. He teaches at Oxford. 10:16) surely connects with the third cup. The Lamb in their midst then and the Lamb in our midst now and forever. It is almost as though Jesus meant not to drink what he was expected to drink. But Jesus is present by the power of the Holy Spirit when we come to this table. Notice also there’s no mention of the Lamb in this text. "Jesus said, "It is finished". Instead of proceeding immediately to the climax of the Passover, the drinking of the fourth cup, we read: “And when they had sung a hymn, they went out to the Mount of Olives” (Mark 14:26). On the other hand, “every high priest is appointed to offer gifts and sacrifices; hence it is necessary for this priest also to have something to offer” (Heb. All of them think, “It couldn’t possibly be one of us.” Did you see that? That is because the Lamb is sitting with them. But we know they’re in the Bible and we know they’re true. Jesus then identified himself as the “true bread from heaven” (6:32ff.) Jesus was thirsty long before this closing moment of his life. 26:39). I will rid you of bondage. And then the Passover concluded with the drinking of the fourth cup. We’re the Judas in this text. While this analysis may seem plausible, further reflection renders it improbable. And then the Passover concluded with the drinking of the fourth cup. I have a vivid recollection of a conversation with a friend at an Evangelical seminary we attended ten years ago. And betrayal plays a key part in this narrative. It’s the only table set by a King for those who would betray Him unto death because Jesus is the only King who dies for His servants who betray Him and then sets a table for them. Dr. Hahn Discussing "Spirit & Life," "The Revelation Study Bible," and "Kinship by Covenant." We’ve all got those scents, those smells that take us back almost more than what we remember seeing during certain events. Copyright, Reproduction & Permission statement. And that’s why He didn’t drink the fourth cup. In both cases, we need Jesus. It would have been better for that man if he had not been born.’, And as they were eating, he took bread, and after blessing it broke it and gave it to them, and said, ‘Take; this is my body.’ And he took a cup, and when he had given thanks he gave it to them, and they all drank of it. I learned Scripture teaches that the Passover sacrifice of the New Covenant began in the upper room with the institution of the Eucharist, not merely with Jesus being crucified on Calvary, as I was taught and had been teaching. In sum, Calvary begins with the Eucharist and the Eucharist ends with Calvary. The Host is Jesus. He’s worked His way down from the north to the south to Jerusalem, and He’ll be arrested and crucified here in a couple of chapters. Part memoir, part detective story, and part biblical study, Scott Hahn's The Fourth Cup opens up new vistas on ancient landscapes while shedding light on his own enduring faith journey. Someone could argue that it is anachronistic to retroject the seder liturgy from the Mishnah back to the first century. All of us should have drunk the whole thing to its dregs. The preacher also showed how the standard Evangelical answer is taken from theology and read into the text (“eisegesis”), instead of being drawn from the text interpreted in context (“exegesis”). We’ll read verses 12 through 25; page 850 in your pew Bibles. Let’s look at these particulars of the institution of the Lord’s Supper. That is a good phrase. But only John tells us how he responded: “When Jesus had received the sour wine, he said, ‘It is finished’; and he bowed his head and gave up his spirit” (19:30). This family bond was expressed in relational terms of father and son (Ex. It’s meant to arrest all five of our senses. This is succinctly stated: “Now the point in what we are saying is this: We have such a high priest, one who is seated at the right hand of the throne of the Majesty in heaven, a minister in the sanctuary and the true tabernacle which is set up not by man but by the Lord” (Heb. Where we are in this text? The Fourth Cup not only tracks the author’s gradual conversion along the path of Evangelicalism to the doorsteps of the Catholic faith, but also explores the often obscure and misunderstood rituals of Passover and their importance in foreshadowing salvation in Jesus Christ. 7:1-3). My response is that I am assuming that critical exegesis has been done and shows the synoptic and Johannine accounts to be different but complementary and, hence, non-contradictory. Because of our union with Christ, all that’s true of Him is true of us. Let us meet with Jesus and drink that cup of blessing that He has made it for us. . We’re drinking the cup of the Messiah, the cup of kingdom consummation. Well-known Catholic theologian Dr. Scott Hahn explains Christ's Paschal Sacrifice on the cross as the fulfillment of the traditional fourth cup used in the celebration of the Jewish Passover meal. Does this mean that Jesus’ “once for all” sacrifice is exclusively past? The grass withers, the flowers fall, but the Word of the living God shall stand forever and ever. His words, therefore, must reflect more than a desire for a last drink of fluid. One interesting note here is that men did not carry water. For one thing, I sought confirmation and clarification elsewhere in Scripture for my conclusion regarding the inseparable connection between Jesus’ Passover sacrifice in the Eucharist and on Calvary. They would never forget it. I couldn’t hear the rest of his sermon. The “once for all” character of Jesus’ sacrifice points to the perfection and perpetuity of his offering. Moreover, there would be no reason for an earthly altar if Jesus’ offering is ended, which is what I believed as an Evangelical Protestant–until I discovered that Scripture teaches the reverse: “We have an altar from which those who serve the tent have no right to eat” (Heb. [Critics may say what I am attempting is methodologically unsound and precritical (mea maxima culpa) because I correlate the synoptic and Johannine accounts in my argument. We use that phrase, “means of grace,” here a lot. Well-known Catholic theologian Dr. Scott Hahn explains Christ's Paschal Sacrifice on the cross as the fulfillment of the traditional fourth cup used in the celebration of the Jewish Passover meal. Through his scholarly insights and important biblical connections, Mass will come alive for you as never before! And he said to them, ‘My soul is very sorrowful, even unto death'” (Mark 14:32). After that, the meal was eaten and blessed and the third cup of wine was drunk and then the second part of the Hallel, Psalm 116 to 118. His other actions that night indicate a man admittedly distressed but in full possession of himself. I don’t know any commentator who denies a connection here. First of all, as we read this text and as you read Biblical text, it’s always good to ask, “Where am I? [Some scholars explain Jesus’ language by identifying it with “the cup of God’s wrath” in the Old Testament prophets (Is. This will happen. No attempt has been made, however, to alter the basic extemporaneous delivery style, or to produce a grammatically accurate, publication-ready manuscript conforming to an established style template. He places the Last Supper … How do we balance those two? Jesus had left unfinished the Passover liturgy in the upper room by not drinking the fourth cup. Isn’t it amazing how many of our memories are tied to certain smells? And the point of what Jesus is saying to us here tonight is that He is the true Passover Lamb who gives us a foretaste of heaven in the Lord’s Supper. And if you think about it this way, Jesus is the ultimate Host who became a Host in His earthly life to those who should have been His hosts. All of them left. Amen. So when you read the Gospel accounts, “They sang a psalm and went out,” it was likely Psalm 118 which, incidentally, is a beautiful description of the work that the Messiah would do. Drawing symbolic parallels to the Last Supper, Christ’s death on Calvary, and our own journey to the cross, The Fourth Cup: Unveiling the Mystery of the Last Supper and the Cross presents scholarly insights and important biblical connections that will make the Mass and our Catholic faith … When you come in a minute to drink the fruit of the vine, what you should hear ringing in your ears is, “I am safe in this household because the blood of the Lamb is over the doorposts.”. On the other hand, a few scholars speculate that psychological factors account for Jesus’ forgetfulness. This is a table for betrayers. I find the supposed conflict between the synoptics and John is resolved to my satisfaction by Annie Jaubert, The Date of the Last Supper (Staten Island: Alba House, 1965). It was the cup all of us deserved to drink to its dregs. And the Lamb in our midst, now and forever, verses 22 to 25. I assured them I was only following Scripture. Let’s pray! That’s the Lamb in their midst then. Little did I know. All the altars that smoke with sacrifices and blood spilled upon them are no longer necessary because the true Lamb is here to die and shed His blood, which is the only blood that takes away sins.” That’s what He’s saying to them. So after the blessing and the first cup, this food was brought in, and the son would ask the question, the firstborn son – “What are we doing?” And the father would explain and then drink the second cup of wine and break the bread and say, here was the prayer, “The Lord our God, sovereign of the world, who has caused bread to come forth out of the earth, praise be to His name!” This is likely where Jesus distributed the bread that we just read about at this second cup. In fact, the Gospel accounts seem to assume its structure in narrating details of the Last Supper. This six-lesson study, presented by Dr. Scott Hahn, will unlock the meaning of covenant, sacrifice, and sacrament as understood in … Serve them.”, There’s a theologian who used to be an atheist by the name of Alister McGrath. That’s what’s going on in the Lord’s Supper. For one thing, I noticed that my King, Priest, and paschal victim, in his “hour of glory” while suffering on the cross, made a profound gesture: “After this Jesus, knowing that all was now finished, said (to fulfill the Scripture), ‘I thirst.'”. The occasion was the Jewish feast of Passover (Mark 14:12-16). Let’s not sanitize that. The main theme of Hebrews is the priesthood of Jesus, particularly as it relates to his “once for all” sacrifice (Heb. That’s what Jesus is saying. We’re coming here tonight saying there is a day coming when, because the Lamb of God spilled His blood for us, drank the cup of God’s fury, that we will be forever feasting with Him in a faint picture given to us tonight at the marriage supper of the Lamb, because we get to drink the cup of blessing because He drank the cup of wrath. And when He says, “Truly I say to you, I will not drink again of the fruit of the vine until that day when I drink it new in the kingdom of God,” He is taking a solemn oath to them. The Fourth Cup By explaining the significance of the drinking of the fourth and final cup in the Old Testament Passover meal ceremony, Dr. Hahn draws a symbolic parallel to Christ's death on the Cross. The conclusion is that Jesus no longer bleeds, suffers, or dies (Heb. Fury of God. New Testament scholars see this pattern reflected in the Gospel narratives of the Last Supper. But she kept this photograph so that when McGrath and his siblings found it, it was all crumpled up, barely recognizable. 12:5, 46) was slain and eaten as a substitutionary sacrifice. I got the urge to write about the Scripture study which led me into a Catholic understanding of the Holy Eucharist (and eventually into the Catholic Church) about five years ago. That’s why it’s a celebration. It’s a cup of protest to the selfishness that engulfs our lives and it says we are identified with another – our sin-bearing, wrath-bearing, grace-bringing substitute, the true Passover Lamb, Jesus. Now is the judgment of this world, now shall the ruler of this world be cast out; and I, when I am lifted up from the earth, will draw all men to myself.’ He said this to show by what death he was to die” (John 12:23, 31-33). I have read criticisms of Jaubert’s thesis, but I don’t feel much force behind them; for a popular summary of the alleged problems, see Raymond Brown, “The Date of the Last Supper,” in The Bible Today Reader (Collegeville: Liturgical Press, 1973), 322-28.] 4:22; Deut. More precisely, it was Jesus’ transformation of the Passover sacrifice of the Old Covenant into the Eucharistic sacrifice of the New Covenant. We’re united to Him, and thus the Lord’s Supper looks back to what Jesus did. The ultimate goal is restoring communion, which is accomplished by the Eucharist. FOURTH CUP Dr. Scott Hahn -- The Catholic understanding of the Mystical Body of Christ, embodied in the Church and revealed anew in the Holy Eucharist, comes directly from the Bible, according to renowned apologist Dr. Scott Hahn. Further study of the matter led me to additional revisions. 51:17; Jer. The result was to draw a little nearer to what Jesus meant when he said, “It is finished” (John 19:30). 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